This chapter introduces functions available in *S-Plus* and *S+SpatialStats* for analyzing geostatistical data. Geostatistical data, also termed random field data, consist of measurements taken at fixed locations. For a complete description of geostatistical data see chapter 1. Specifically, this chapter discusses methods related to variogram analysis and kriging. Variogram estimation and kriging were originally introduced as geostatistical methods for use in mining applications. In recent years, these methods have been applied to many disciplines including meteorology, forestry, agriculture, cartography, climatology, and fisheries.

In this chapter you will learn about the following topics:

Estimating Variograms (section 4.1).

Fitting Theoretical Variogram Models (section 4.2).

Performing Ordinary and Universal Kriging (section 4.3).

Simulating Geostatistical Data (section 4.4).