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Theijssen, Daphne; Boves, Lou; Halteren, Hans; Oostdijk, Nelleke
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1 Citations
In this article, we automatically create two large and richly annotated data sets for studying the English dative alternation. With an intrinsic and an extrinsic evaluation, we address the question of whether such data sets that are obtained and enriched automatically are suitable for linguistic research, even if they contain errors. The extrinsic evaluation consists of building logistic regression models with these data sets. We conclude that the automatic approach for detecting instances of the dative alternation still needs human intervention, but that it is indeed possible to annotate the instances with features that are syntactic, semantic and discourserelated in nature. Only the automatic classification of the concreteness of nouns is problematic.
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By
Denis, Pascal; Sagot, Benoît
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7 Citations
This paper investigates how to best couple handannotated data with information extracted from an external lexical resource to improve partofspeech tagging performance. Focusing mostly on French tagging, we introduce a maximum entropy Markov modelbased tagging system that is enriched with information extracted from a morphological resource. This system gives a 97.75 % accuracy on the French Treebank, an error reduction of 25 % (38 % on unknown words) over the same tagger without lexical information. We perform a series of experiments that help understanding how this lexical information helps improving tagging accuracy. We also conduct experiments on datasets and lexicons of varying sizes in order to assess the best tradeoff between annotating data versus developing a lexicon. We find that the use of a lexicon improves the quality of the tagger at any stage of development of either resource, and that for fixed performance levels the availability of the full lexicon consistently reduces the need for supervised data by at least one half.
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By
Scheible, Silke
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1 Citations
Although superlatives are commonly used in natural language, so far there has been no largescale computational investigation of the types of comparisons they express. This article describes a comprehensive annotation scheme for superlatives, which classifies superlatives according to their surface forms and motivates an initial focus on socalled “ISA superlatives”. This type of superlative comparison is especially suitable for a computational approach because both their targets and comparison sets are explicitly realised in the text, and the proposed annotation scheme offers guidelines for annotating the spans of such comparative elements. The annotations are tested and evaluated on 500 tokens of superlatives with good interannotator agreement. In addition to providing a platform for investigating superlatives on a larger scale, this research also introduces a new textbased Wikipedia corpus in which all superlative instances have been annotated according to the proposed annotation scheme, and which has been used to develop a tool that can reliably distinguish between different superlative types, and identify the comparative components of ISA superlatives.
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By
Peris, Aina; Taulé, Mariona
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1 Citations
Over recent years, there has been a growing interest in the computational treatment of nominalized Noun Phrases due to the rich semantic information they contain. These Noun Phrases can be understood as verbal paraphrases and, just like them, they can also denote argument and thematicrole relations. This paper presents the methodology followed to annotate the argument structure of deverbal nominalizations in the Spanish AnCoraEs corpus. We focus on the automated annotation process that is mostly based on the semantic information specified in a verbal lexicon but also on the syntactic and semantic information annotated in the corpus. The heuristic rules that make use of this information rely on linguistic assumptions that are also evaluated as we evaluate the reliability of the automated process. The automated annotation was manually checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the final resource. We demonstrate its feasibility (77% Fmeasure) and show that it facilitates corpus annotation, which is always a timeconsuming and costly process. The result is the enrichment of the AnCoraEs corpus with the argument structure and thematic roles of deverbal nominalizations. It is the first Spanish corpus with this kind of information that is freely available.
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By
Lambert, Patrik; Petitrenaud, Simon; Ma, Yanjun; Way, Andy
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2 Citations
In most statistical machine translation (SMT) systems, bilingual segments are extracted via word alignment. However, there is a need for systematic study as to what alignment characteristics can benefit MT under specific experimental settings such as the type of MT system, the language pair or the type or size of the corpus. In this paper we perform, in each of these experimental settings, a statistical analysis of the data and study the sample correlation coefficients between a number of alignment or phrase table characteristics and variables such as the phrase table size, the number of untranslated words or the BLEU score. We report results for two different SMT systems (a phrasebased and an ngrambased system) on ChinesetoEnglish FBIS and BTEC data, and SpanishtoEnglish European Parliament data. We find that the alignment characteristics which help in translation greatly depend on the MT system and on the corpus size. We give alignment hints to improve BLEU score, depending on the SMT system used and the type of corpus. For example, for phrasebased SMT, dense alignments are required with larger corpora, especially on the target side, while with smaller corpora, more precise, sparser alignments are better, especially on the source side. Avoiding some longdistance crossing links may also improve BLEU score with small corpora. We take these conclusions into account to modify two types of alignment systems, and get 1 to 1.6 % relative improvements in BLEU score on two heldout corpora, although the improved system is different in each corpus.
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By
Stein, Daniel; Schmidt, Christoph; Ney, Hermann
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8 Citations
Sign languages represent an interesting niche for statistical machine translation that is typically hampered by the scarceness of suitable data, and most papers in this area apply only a few, wellknown techniques that are not adapted to smallsized corpora. In this article, we analyze existing data collections and emphasize their quality and usability for statistical machine translation. We also offer findings in the proper preprocessing of a sign language corpus, by introducing sentence end markers, splitting compound words and handling parallel communication channels. Then, we focus on optimization procedures that are tailored to scarce resources, such as scaling factor optimization, alignment optimization and system combination. All methods are evaluated on two of the largest sign language corpora available.
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By
McCrae, John; AguadodeCea, Guadalupe; Buitelaar, Paul; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; GómezPérez, Asunción; Gracia, Jorge; Hollink, Laura; MontielPonsoda, Elena; Spohr, Dennis; Wunner, Tobias
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27 Citations
Lexica and terminology databases play a vital role in many NLP applications, but currently most such resources are published in applicationspecific formats, or with custom access interfaces, leading to the problem that much of this data is in “data silos” and hence difficult to access. The Semantic Web and in particular the Linked Data initiative provide effective solutions to this problem, as well as possibilities for data reuse by interlexicon linking, and incorporation of data categories by dereferencable URIs. The Semantic Web focuses on the use of ontologies to describe semantics on the Web, but currently there is no standard for providing complex lexical information for such ontologies and for describing the relationship between the lexicon and the ontology. We present our model, lemon, which aims to address these gaps while building on existing work, in particular the Lexical Markup Framework, the ISOcat Data Category Registry, SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and the LexInfo and LIR ontologylexicon models.
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By
AlJumaily, Harith; Martínez, Paloma; MartínezFernández, José L.; Goot, Erik
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6 Citations
Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the Arab World. Most people of the Islamic World understand the Classic Arabic language because it is the language of the Qur’an. Despite the fact that in the last decade the number of Arabic Internet users (Middle East and North and East of Africa) has increased considerably, systems to analyze Arabic digital resources automatically are not as easily available as they are for English. Therefore, in this work, an attempt is made to build a real time Named Entity Recognition system that can be used in web applications to detect the appearance of specific named entities and events in news written in Arabic. Arabic is a highly inflectional language, thus we will try to minimize the impact of Arabic affixes on the quality of the pattern recognition model applied to identify named entities. These patterns are built up by processing and integrating different gazetteers, from DBPedia (
http://dbpedia.org/About
, 2009) to GATE (A general architecture for text engineering, 2009) and ANERGazet (
http://users.dsic.upv.es/grupos/nle/?file=kop4.php
).
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By
Galminas, Lisa; Mersch, John G.
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In this paper we construct an extension,
$${\mathcal{L}}$$
, of Anderson and Belnap’s relevance logic R that is classical in the sense that it contains
$${p \& \neg p \rightarrow q}$$
as a theorem, and we prove that
$${\mathcal{L}}$$
is pretabular in the sense that while it does not have a finite characteristic matrix, every proper normal extension of it does. We end the paper by commenting on the possibility of finding other classical relevance logics that are also pretabular.
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By
Horčík, Rostislav
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We solve several open problems on the cardinality of atoms in the subvariety lattice of residuated lattices and FLalgebras [4, Problems 17–19, pp. 437]. Namely, we prove that the subvariety lattice of residuated lattices contains continuum many 4potent commutative representable atoms. Analogous results apply also to atoms in the subvariety lattice of FL_{i}algebras and FL_{o}algebras. On the other hand, we show that the subvariety lattice of residuated lattices contains only five 3potent commutative representable atoms and two integral commutative representable atoms. Inspired by the construction of atoms, we are also able to prove that the variety of integral commutative representable residuated lattices is generated by its 1generated finite members.
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By
Jenei, Sándor
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13 Citations
A new structure, called equality algebras, will be introduced. It has two connectives, a meet operation and an equivalence, and a constant. A closure operator will be defined in the class of equality algebras, and we call the closed algebras equivalential. We show that equivalential equality algebras are term equivalent with BCKalgebras with meet. As a byproduct, we obtain a quite general result, which is analogous to a result of Kabziński and Wroński: we provide an equational characterization for the equivalential fragment of BCKalgebras with meet.
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By
Seki, Takahiro
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Metacompleteness is used to prove properties such as the disjunction property and the existence property in the area of relevant logics. On the other hand, the disjunction property of several basic propositional substructural logics over FL has been proved using the cut elimination theorem of sequent calculi and algebraic characterization. The present paper shows that Meyer’s metavaluational technique and Slaney’s metavaluational technique can be applied to basic predicate intuitionistic substructural logics and basic predicate involutive substructural logics, respectively. As a corollary of metacompleteness, the disjunction property, the existence property, and the admissibility of certain rules in such logics can be proved.
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By
Seki, Takahiro
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1 Citations
The admissibility of Ackermann’s rule γ is one of the most important problems in relevant logics. The admissibility of γ was first proved by an algebraic method. However, the development of RoutleyMeyer semantics and metavaluational techniques makes it possible to prove the admissibility of γ using the method of normal models or the method using metavaluations, and the use of such methods is preferred. This paper discusses an algebraic proof of the admissibility of γ in relevant modal logics based on modern algebraic models.
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By
Takamura, Hiroki
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1 Citations
In this paper, we show that all semisimple varieties of bounded weakcommutative residuated lattices with an S4like modal operator are discriminator varieties. We also give a characterization of discriminator and EDPC varieties of bounded weakcommutative residuated lattices with an S4like modal operator follows.
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By
Brotherston, James
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9 Citations
We formulate a unified display calculus proof theory for the four principal varieties of bunched logic by combining display calculi for their component logics. Our calculi satisfy cutelimination, and are sound and complete with respect to their standard presentations. We show how to constrain applications of displayequivalence in our calculi in such a way that an exhaustive proof search need be only finitely branching, and establish a full deduction theorem for the bunched logics with classical additives, BBI and CBI. We also show that the standard sequent calculus for BI can be seen as a reformulation of its display calculus, and argue that analogous sequent calculi for the other varieties of bunched logic are very unlikely to exist.
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By
Bova, Simone
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In 1979, H. Lewis shows that the computational complexity of the Boolean satisfiability problem dichotomizes, depending on the Boolean operations available to formulate instances: intractable (NPcomplete) if negation of implication is definable, and tractable (in P) otherwise [21]. Recently, an investigation in the same spirit has been extended to nonclassical propositional logics, modal logics in particular [2, 3]. In this note, we pursue this line in the realm of manyvalued propositional logics, and obtain complexity classifications for the parameterized satisfiability problem of two pertinent samples, Kleene and Gödel logics.
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By
Castiglioni, José L.; San Martín, Hernán J.
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1 Citations
In this paper we shall prove that certain subvarieties of the variety of Salgebras (Heyting algebras with successor) has amalgamation. This result together with an appropriate version of Theorem 1 of [L. L. Maksimova, Craig’s theorem in superintuitionistic logics and amalgamable varieties of pseudoboolean algebras, Algebra i Logika, 16(6):643681, 1977] allows us to show interpolation in the calculus IPC_{S}(n), associated with these varieties.
We use that every algebra in any of the varieties of Salgebras studied in this work has a canonical extension, to show completeness of the calculus IPC_{S}(n) with respect to appropriate Kripke models.
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By
Paoli, F.; Tsinakis, C.
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2 Citations
In his milestone textbook Lattice Theory, Garrett Birkhoff challenged his readers to develop a “common abstraction” that includes Boolean algebras and latticeordered groups as special cases. In this paper, after reviewing the past attempts to solve the problem, we provide our own answer by selecting as common generalization of
$${\mathcal{B} \mathcal{A}}$$
and
$${\mathcal{L} \mathcal{G}}$$
their join
$${\mathcal{B} \mathcal{A} \vee \mathcal{L} \mathcal{G}}$$
in the lattice of subvarieties of
$${\mathcal{F} \mathcal{L}}$$
(the variety of FLalgebras); we argue that such a solution is optimal under several respects and we give an explicit equational basis for
$${\mathcal{B} \mathcal{A} \vee \mathcal{L} \mathcal{G}}$$
relative to
$${\mathcal{F} \mathcal{L}}$$
. Finally, we prove a Hollandtype representation theorem for a variety of FLalgebras containing
$${\mathcal{B} \mathcal{A} \vee \mathcal{L} \mathcal{G}}$$
.
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By
Abushariah, Mohammad A. M.; Ainon, Raja N.; Zainuddin, Roziati; Elshafei, Moustafa; Khalifa, Othman O.
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8 Citations
This paper describes the preparation, recording, analyzing, and evaluation of a new speech corpus for Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). The speech corpus contains a total of 415 sentences recorded by 40 (20 male and 20 female) Arabic native speakers from 11 different Arab countries representing three major regions (Levant, Gulf, and Africa). Three hundred and sixty seven sentences are considered as phonetically rich and balanced, which are used for training Arabic Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems. The rich characteristic is in the sense that it must contain all phonemes of Arabic language, whereas the balanced characteristic is in the sense that it must preserve the phonetic distribution of Arabic language. The remaining 48 sentences are created for testing purposes, which are mostly foreign to the training sentences and there are hardly any similarities in words. In order to evaluate the speech corpus, Arabic ASR systems were developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx 3 tools at both training and testing/decoding levels. The speech engine uses 3emitting state Hidden Markov Models (HMM) for triphone based acoustic models. Based on experimental analysis of about 8 h of training speech data, the acoustic model is best using continuous observation’s probability model of 16 Gaussian mixture distributions and the state distributions were tied to 500 senones. The language model contains unigrams, bigrams, and trigrams. For same speakers with different sentences, Arabic ASR systems obtained average Word Error Rate (WER) of 9.70%. For different speakers with same sentences, Arabic ASR systems obtained average WER of 4.58%, whereas for different speakers with different sentences, Arabic ASR systems obtained average WER of 12.39%.
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By
Cignoli, Roberto; Torrens, Antoni
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9 Citations
Let
$${\mathbb{BRL}}$$
denote the variety of commutative integral bounded residuated lattices (bounded residuated lattices for short). A Boolean retraction term for a subvariety
$${\mathbb{V}}$$
of
$${\mathbb{BRL}}$$
is a unary term t in the language of bounded residuated lattices such that for every
$${{\bf A} \in \mathbb{V}, t^{A}}$$
, the interpretation of the term on A, defines a retraction from A onto its Boolean skeleton B(A). It is shown that Boolean retraction terms are equationally definable, in the sense that there is a variety
$${\mathbb{V}_{t} \subsetneq \mathbb{BRL}}$$
such that a variety
$${\mathbb{V} \subsetneq \mathbb{BRL}}$$
admits the unary term t as a Boolean retraction term if and only if
$${\mathbb{V} \subseteq \mathbb{V}_{t}}$$
. Moreover, the equation s(x) = t(x) holds in
$${\mathbb{V}_{s} \cap \mathbb{V}_{t}}$$
.
The radical of
$${{\bf A} \in \mathbb{BRL}}$$
, with the structure of an unbounded residuated lattice with the operations inherited from A expanded with a unary operation corresponding to double negation and a a binary operation defined in terms of the monoid product and the negation, is called the radical algebra of A. To each involutive variety
$${\mathbb{V} \subseteq \mathbb{V}_{t}}$$
is associated a variety
$${\mathbb{V}^{r}}$$
formed by the isomorphic copies of the radical algebras of the directly indecomposable algebras in
$${\mathbb{V}}$$
. Each free algebra in such
$${\mathbb{V}}$$
is representable as a weak Boolean product of directly indecomposable algebras over the Stone space of the free Boolean algebra with the same number of free generators, and the radical algebra of each directly indecomposable factor is a free algebra in the associated variety
$${\mathbb{V}^{r}}$$
, also with the same number of free generators.
A hierarchy of subvarieties of
$${\mathbb{BRL}}$$
admitting Boolean retraction terms is exhibited.
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By
Foulis, D. J.; Pulmannová, S.
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2 Citations
An effect algebra is a partial algebraic structure, originally formulated as an algebraic base for unsharp quantum measurements. In this article we present an approach to the study of lattice effect algebras (LEAs) that emphasizes their structure as algebraic models for the semantics of (possibly) nonstandard symbolic logics. This is accomplished by focusing on the interplay among conjunction, implication, and negation connectives on LEAs, where the conjunction and implication connectives are related by a residuation law. Special cases of LEAs are MValgebras and orthomodular lattices. The main result of the paper is a characterization of LEAs in terms of socalled Sasaki algebras. Also, we compare and contrast LEAs, Hájek’s BLalgebras, and the basic algebras of Chajda, Halaš, and Kühr.
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By
Rudzicz, Frank; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wolff, Talya
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32 Citations
This paper describes the acquisition of a new database of dysarthric speech in terms of aligned acoustics and articulatory data. This database currently includes data from seven individuals with speech impediments caused by cerebral palsy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and age and gendermatched control subjects. Each of the individuals with speech impediments are given standardized assessments of speechmotor function by a speechlanguage pathologist. Acoustic data is obtained by one headmounted and one directional microphone. Articulatory data is obtained by electromagnetic articulography, which allows the measurement of the tongue and other articulators during speech, and by 3D reconstruction from binocular video sequences. The stimuli are obtained from a variety of sources including the TIMIT database, lists of identified phonetic contrasts, and assessments of speech intelligibility. This paper also includes some analysis as to how dysarthric speech differs from nondysarthric speech according to features such as length of phonemes, and pronunciation errors.
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By
Neumann, Martin
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2 Citations
The comprehension of norms in complex social systems is one of the most active fields of research in agentbased modelling. This is faced with the challenge to comprehend the recursive interaction between inter and intraagent processes. In this article, a comparative analysis of selected cases of normative agent architectures will be given based on a review of theories of norms in the social sciences. This allows to identify the prerequisites for a representation of the cognitive processes of norm recognition. As yet, there is no unequivocal concept for the design of normative agents. Different approaches are compared along the line of different theoretical accounts.
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By
Riveret, Régis; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni
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9 Citations
This paper proposes an approach to investigate normgoverned learning agents which combines a logicbased formalism with an equationbased counterpart. This dual formalism enables us to describe the reasoning of such agents and their interactions using argumentation, and, at the same time, to capture systemic features using equations. The approach is applied to norm emergence and internalisation in systems of learning agents. The logical formalism is rooted into a probabilistic defeasible logic instantiating Dung’s argumentation framework. Rules of this logic are attached with probabilities to describe the agents’ minds and behaviours as well as uncertain environments. Then, the equationbased model for reinforcement learning, defined over this probability distribution, allows agents to adapt to their environment and selforganise.
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By
Andrighetto, Giulia; Conte, Rosaria
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2 Citations
In this paper, an integrated, cognitive view of different mechanisms, reasons and pathways to norm compliance is presented. After a short introduction, theories of norm compliance are reviewed, and found to group in four main typologies: the rational choice model of norm compliance; theories based on conditional preferences to conformity, theories of thoughtless conformity, and theories of norm internalization. In the third section of the paper, the normative architecture EMILA is presented. Previous work discussed the epistemic module of this normative architecture, allowing for the generation of normative beliefs being formed. The fourth and fifth sections present the pragmatic modules of EMILA, i.e. norm adoption—leading to normative goals—and norm compliance—leading to their execution. Not only are several alternative reasons for norm adoption shown, but also several pathways to norm compliance are identified. Finally, a summary and ideas for future works conclude the paper.
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By
Palmatier, Joshua B.; Guzman, Fernando
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In this note we develop a method for constructing finite totallyordered mzeroids and prove that there exists a categorical equivalence between the category of finite, totallyordered mzeroids and the category of pseudo Łukasiewiczlike implicators.
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By
Naumov, Pavel
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3 Citations
Three different types of interdependence between pieces of information, or “secrets”, are discussed and compared. Two of them, functional dependence and nondeducibility, have been studied and axiomatized before. This article introduces a third type of interdependence and provides a complete and decidable axiomatization of this new relation.
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By
Hansson, Sven Ove
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1 Citations
Contractions on belief sets that have no finite representation cannot be finite in the sense that only a finite number of sentences is removed. However, such contractions can be delimited so that the actual change takes place in a logically isolated, finitebased part of the belief set. A construction that answers to this principle is introduced, and is axiomatically characterized. It turns out to coincide with specified meet contraction.
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By
Kulicki, Piotr
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1 Citations
A calculus of names is a logical theory describing relations between names. By a pure calculus of names we mean a quantifierfree formulation of such a theory, based on classical propositional calculus. An axiomatisation of a pure calculus of names is presented and its completeness is discussed. It is shown that the axiomatisation is complete in three different ways: with respect to a set theoretical model, with respect to Leśniewski’s Ontology and in a sense defined with the use of axiomatic rejection. The independence of axioms is proved. A decision procedure based on syntactic transformations and models defined in the domain of only two members is defined.
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By
Muller, F. A.
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In this journal, D. Rizza [11] (p. 176) expounded a solution of what he called “the indiscernibility problem for ante rem structuralism”, which is the problem to make sense of the presence, in structures, of objects that are indiscernible yet distinct, by only appealing to what that structure provides. We argue that Rizza’s solution is circular and expound a different solution that not only solves the problem for completely extensive structures, treated by Rizza, but for nearly (but not) all mathematical structures.
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By
Schwarzentruber, François
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7 Citations
We provide a Kripke semantics for a STIT logic with the “next” operator. As the atemporal group STIT is undecidable and unaxiomatizable, we are interested in strict fragments of atemporal group STIT. First we prove that the satisfiability problem of a formula of the fragment made up of individual coalitions plus the grand coalition is also NEXPTIMEcomplete. We then generalize this result to a fragment where coalitions are in a given lattice. We also prove that if we restrict the language to nested coalitions the satisfiability problem is NPcomplete if the number of agents is fixed and PSPACEcomplete if the number of agents is variable. Finally we embed individual STIT with the “next” operator into a fragment of atemporal group STIT.
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By
Vilar, David; Ney, Hermann
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2 Citations
In this article we present two novel enhancements for the cube pruning and cube growing algorithms, two of the most widely applied methods when using the hierarchical approach to statistical machine translation. Cube pruning is the de facto standard search algorithm for the hierarchical model. We propose to adapt concepts of the source cardinality synchronous search organization as used for standard phrasebased translation to the characteristics of cube pruning. In this way we will be able to improve the performance of the generation process and reduce the average translation time per sentence to approximately one quarter. We will also investigate the cube growing algorithm, a reformulation of cube pruning with ondemand computation. This algorithm depends on a heuristic for the language model, but this issue is barely discussed in the original work. We analyze the behaviour of this heuristic and propose a new one which greatly reduces memory consumption without costs in runtime or translation performance. Results are reported on the German–English Europarl corpus.
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By
Spanger, Philipp; Yasuhara, Masaaki; Iida, Ryu; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Terai, Asuka; Kuriyama, Naoko
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2 Citations
Identifying objects in conversation is a fundamental human capability necessary to achieve efficient collaboration on any real world task. Hence the deepening of our understanding of human referential behaviour is indispensable for the creation of systems that collaborate with humans in a meaningful way. We present the construction of REXJ, a multimodal Japanese corpus of referring expressions in situated dialogs, based on the collaborative task of solving the Tangram puzzle. This corpus contains 24 dialogs with over 4 h of recordings and over 1,400 referring expressions. We outline the characteristics of the collected data and point out the important differences from previous corpora. The corpus records extralinguistic information during the interaction (e.g. the position of pieces, the actions on the pieces) in synchronization with the participants’ utterances. This in turn allows us to discuss the importance of creating a unified model of linguistic and extralinguistic information from a new perspective. Demonstrating the potential uses of this corpus, we present the analysis of a specific type of referring expression (“actionmentioning expression”) as well as the results of research into the generation of demonstrative pronouns. Furthermore, we discuss some perspectives on potential uses of this corpus as well as our planned future work, underlining how it is a valuable addition to the existing databases in the community for the study and modeling of referring expressions in situated dialog.
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By
Toral, Antonio; Ferrández, Sergio; Monachini, Monica; Muñoz, Rafael
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3 Citations
This paper proposes to advance in the current stateoftheart of automatic Language Resource (LR) building by taking into consideration three elements: (1) the knowledge available in existing LRs, (2) the vast amount of information available from the collaborative paradigm that has emerged from the Web 2.0 and (3) the use of standards to improve interoperability. We present a case study in which a set of LRs for different languages (WordNet for English and Spanish and ParoleSimpleClips for Italian) are extended with Named Entities (NE) by exploiting Wikipedia and the aforementioned LRs. The practical result is a multilingual NE lexicon connected to these LRs and to two ontologies: SUMO and SIMPLE. Furthermore, the paper addresses an important problem which affects the Computational Linguistics area in the present, interoperability, by making use of the ISO LMF standard to encode this lexicon. The different steps of the procedure (mapping, disambiguation, extraction, NE identification and postprocessing) are comprehensively explained and evaluated. The resulting resource contains 974,567, 137,583 and 125,806 NEs for English, Spanish and Italian respectively. Finally, in order to check the usefulness of the constructed resource, we apply it into a stateoftheart Question Answering system and evaluate its impact; the NE lexicon improves the system’s accuracy by 28.1%. Compared to previous approaches to build NE repositories, the current proposal represents a step forward in terms of automation, language independence, amount of NEs acquired and richness of the information represented.
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By
Vilar, David; Stein, Daniel; Huck, Matthias; Ney, Hermann
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2 Citations
In this article we will describe the design and implementation of Jane, an efficient hierarchical phrasebased (HPB) toolkit developed at RWTH Aachen University. The system has been used by RWTH at several international evaluation campaigns, including the WMT and NIST evaluations, and is now freely available for noncommercial application. We will go through the main features of Jane, which include, among others, support for different search strategies, different language model formats, support for syntaxbased enhancements to the HPB machine translation paradigm, stringtodependency translation, extended lexicon models, different methods for minimumerrorrate training and distributed operation on a computer cluster. Special attention has been paid to the efficiency of the decoder, clean code and quality assurance through unit and regression testing. Results on current machine translation tasks are reported, which show that the system is able to obtain stateoftheart performance.
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By
BenchCapon, Trevor; Araszkiewicz, Michał; Ashley, Kevin; Atkinson, Katie; Bex, Floris; Borges, Filipe; Bourcier, Daniele; Bourgine, Paul; Conrad, Jack G.; Francesconi, Enrico; Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Leidner, Jochen L.; Lewis, David D.; Loui, Ronald P.; McCarty, L. Thorne; Prakken, Henry; Schilder, Frank; Schweighofer, Erich; Thompson, Paul; Tyrrell, Alex; Verheij, Bart; Walton, Douglas N.; Wyner, Adam Z.
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16 Citations
We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into a history of the last quarter century of the field, and provide some insights into where it has come from, where it is now, and where it might go.
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By
Francisco, Virginia; Hervás, Raquel; Peinado, Federico; Gervás, Pablo
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6 Citations
Emotions are inherent to any human activity, including human–computer interactions, and that is the reason why recognizing emotions expressed in natural language is becoming a key feature for the design of more natural user interfaces. In order to obtain useful corpora for this purpose, the manual classification of texts according to their emotional content has been the technique most commonly used by the research community. The use of corpora is widespread in Natural Language Processing, and the existing corpora annotated with emotions support the development, training and evaluation of systems using this type of data. In this paper we present the development of an annotated corpus oriented to the narrative domain, called EmoTales, which uses two different approaches to represent emotional states: emotional categories and emotional dimensions. The corpus consists of a collection of 1,389 English sentences from 18 different folk tales, annotated by 36 different people. Our model of the corpus development process includes a postprocessing stage performed after the annotation of the corpus, in which a reference value for each sentence was chosen by taking into account the tags assigned by annotators and some general knowledge about emotions, which is codified in an ontology. The whole process is presented in detail, and revels significant results regarding the corpus such as interannotator agreement, while discussing topics such as how human annotators deal with emotional content when performing their work, and presenting some ideas for the application of this corpus that may inspire the research community to develop new ways to annotate corpora using a large set of emotional tags.
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Read, Jonathon; Carroll, John
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19 Citations
In the context of Systemic Functional Linguistics, Appraisal is a theory describing the types of language utilised in communicating emotion and opinion. Robust automatic analyses of Appraisal could contribute in a number of ways to computational sentiment analysis by: distinguishing various types of evaluation, for example affect, ethics or aesthetics; discriminating between an author’s opinions and the opinions of authors referenced by the author and determining the strength of evaluations. This paper reviews the typology described by Appraisal, presents a methodology for annotating Appraisal, and the use of this to annotate a corpus of book reviews. It discusses an interannotator agreement study, and considers instances of systematic disagreement that indicate areas in which Appraisal may be refined or clarified. Although the annotation task is difficult, there are many instances where the annotators agree; these are used to create a goldstandard corpus for future experimentation with Appraisal.
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Schiel, Florian; Heinrich, Christian; Barfüsser, Sabine
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12 Citations
The Alcohol Language Corpus (ALC) is the first publicly available speech corpus comprising intoxicated and sober speech of 162 female and male German speakers. Recordings are done in the automotive environment to allow for the development of automatic alcohol detection and to ensure a consistent acoustic environment for the alcoholized and the sober recording. The recorded speech covers a variety of contents and speech styles. Breath and blood alcohol concentration measurements are provided for all speakers. A transcription according to SpeechDat/Verbmobil standards and disfluency tagging as well as an automatic phonetic segmentation are part of the corpus. An Emu version of ALC allows easy access to basic speech parameters as well as the us of R for statistical analysis of selected parts of ALC. ALC is available without restriction for scientific or commercial use at the Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals.
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Rodrigo, Álvaro; Peñas, Anselmo; Verdejo, Felisa
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2 Citations
Formulating Question Answering Validation as a classification problem facilitates the introduction of Machine Learning techniques to improve the overall performance of Question Answering systems. The different proportion of positive and negative examples in the evaluation collections has led to the use of measures based on precision and recall. However, an evaluation based on the analysis of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) space is sometimes preferred in classification with unbalanced collections. In this article we compare both evaluation approaches according to their rationale, their stability, their discrimination power and their adequacy to the particularities of the Answer Validation task.
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Protopapas, Athanassios; Tzakosta, Marina; Chalamandaris, Aimilios; Tsiakoulis, Pirros
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17 Citations
We present a new online psycholinguistic resource for Greek based on analyses of written corpora combined with text processing technologies developed at the Institute for Language & Speech Processing (ILSP), Greece. The “ILSP PsychoLinguistic Resource” (IPLR) is a freely accessible service via a dedicated web page, at
http://speech.ilsp.gr/iplr
. IPLR provides analyses of usersubmitted letter strings (words and nonwords) as well as frequency tables for important units and conditions such as syllables, bigrams, and neighbors, calculated over two word lists based on printed text corpora and their phonetic transcription. Online tools allow retrieval of words matching userspecified orthographic or phonetic patterns. All results and processing code (in the Python programming language) are freely available for noncommercial educational or research use.
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Fulda, Joseph S.
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1 Citations
We argued [Since this argument appeared in other journals, I am reprising it here, almost verbatim.] (Fulda in J Law Info Sci 2:230–232, 1991/AI Soc 8(4):357–359, 1994) that the paradox of the preface suggests a reason why machines cannot, will not, and should not be allowed to judge criminal cases. The argument merely shows that they cannot now and will not soon or easily be so allowed. The author, in fact, now believes that when—and only when—they are ready they actually should be so allowed, in the interests of justice. Both the original argument applied and this detailed reconsideration applies exclusively to trial courts, and both specifically exclude(d) sentencing. The argument highlights some key relevant differences between minds and machines and attempts, also, to explain why automation is of far greater import for the firstlevel justice system (trial courts) than for higher courts. A final section discusses why sentencing was, is, and should be excluded.
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Icard, Thomas F., III
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3 Citations
We present a formal system for reasoning about inclusion and exclusion in natural language, following work by MacCartney and Manning. In particular, we show that an extension of the Monotonicity Calculus, augmented by six new type markings, is sufficient to derive novel inferences beyond monotonicity reasoning, and moreover gives rise to an interesting logic of its own. We prove soundness of the resulting calculus and discuss further logical and linguistic issues, including a new connection to the classes of weak, strong, and superstrong negative polarity items.
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Lambek, Joachim
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2 Citations
Grammar can be formulated as a kind of substructural propositional logic. In support of this claim, we survey bare Gentzen style deductive systems and two kinds of noncommutative linear logic: intuitionistic and compact bilinear logic. We also glance at their categorical refinements.
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Mineshima, Koji; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takemura, Ryo
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4 Citations
We introduce a simple inference system based on two primitive relations between terms, namely, inclusion and exclusion relations. We present a normalization theorem, and then provide a characterization of the structure of normal proofs. Based on this, inferences in a syllogistic fragment of natural language are reconstructed within our system. We also show that our system can be embedded into a fragment of propositional minimal logic.
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Fox, Chris
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5 Citations
This paper proposes a framework for formalising intuitions about the behaviour of imperative commands. It seeks to capture notions of satisfaction and coherence. Rules are proposed to express key aspects of the general logical behaviour of imperative constructions. A key objective is for the framework to allow patterns of behaviour to be described while avoiding making any commitments about how commands, and their satisfaction criteria, are to be interpreted. We consider the status of some conundrums of imperative logic in the context of this proposal.
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Martin, Scott; Pollard, Carl
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Socalled ‘dynamic’ semantic theories such as Kamp’s discourse representation theory and Heim’s file change semantics account for such phenomena as crosssentential anaphora, donkey anaphora, and the novelty condition on indefinites, but compare unfavorably with Montague semantics in some important respects (clarity and simplicity of mathematical foundations, compositionality, handling of quantification and coordination). Preliminary efforts have been made by Muskens and by de Groote to revise and extend Montague semantics to cover dynamic phenomena. We present a new higherorder theory of discourse semantics which improves on their accounts by incorporating a more articulated notion of context inspired by ideas due to David Lewis and to Craige Roberts.
On our account, a context consists of a common ground of mutually accepted propositions together with a set of discourse referents preordered by relative salience. Employing a richer notion of contexts enables us to extend our coverage beyond pronominal anaphora to a wider range of presuppositional phenomena, such as the factivity of certain sententialcomplement verbs, resolution of anaphora associated with arbitrarily complex definite descriptions, presupposition ‘holes’ such as negation, and the independence condition on the antecedents of conditionals.
Formally, our theory is expressed within a higherorder logic with natural number type, separationstyle subtyping, and dependent coproducts parameterized by the natural numbers. The system of semantic types builds on proposals due to Thomason and to Pollard in which the type of propositions (static meanings of sentential utterances) is taken as basic and worlds are constructed from propositions (rather than the other way around as in standard Montague semantics).
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Więckowski, Bartosz
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4 Citations
The analysis of atomic sentences and their subatomic components poses a special problem for prooftheoretic approaches to natural language semantics, as it is far from clear how their semantics could be explained by means of proofs rather than denotations. The paper develops a prooftheoretic semantics for a fragment of English within a typetheoretical formalism that combines subatomic systems for natural deduction [20] with constructive (or MartinLöf) type theory [8, 9] by stating rules for the formation, introduction, elimination and equality of atomic propositions understood as types (or sets) of subatomic proofobjects. The formalism is extended with dependent types to admit an interpretation of nonatomic sentences. The paper concludes with applications to natural language including internally nested proper names, anaphoric pronouns, simple identity sentences, and intensional transitive verbs.
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Cobreros, Pablo; Egré, Paul; Ripley, David; Rooij, Robert
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8 Citations
In a previous paper (see ‘Tolerant, Classical, Strict’, henceforth TCS) we investigated a semantic framework to deal with the idea that vague predicates are tolerant, namely that small changes do not affect the applicability of a vague predicate even if large changes do. Our approach there rests on two main ideas. First, given a classical extension of a predicate, we can define a strict and a tolerant extension depending on an indifference relation associated to that predicate. Second, we can use these notions of satisfaction to define mixed consequence relations that capture nontransitive tolerant reasoning. Although we gave some empirical motivation for the use of strict and tolerant extensions, making use of them commits us to the view that sentences of the form ‘
$${p {\vee} {\neg} p}$$
’ and ‘
$${p {\wedge} {\neg} p}$$
’ are not automatically valid or unsatisfiable, respectively. Some philosophers might take this commitment as a negative outcome of our previous proposal. We think, however, that the general ideas underlying our previous approach to vagueness can be implemented in a variety of ways. This paper explores the possibility of defining mixed notions of consequence in the more classical super/subvaluationist setting and examines to what extent any of these notions captures nontransitive tolerant reasoning.
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Moss, Lawrence S.
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4 Citations
This paper provides a foundation for the polarity marking technique introduced by David Dowty [3] in connection with monotonicity reasoning in natural language and in linguistic analyses of negative polarity items based on categorial grammar. Dowty’s work is an alternative to the betterknown algorithmic approach first proposed by Johan van Benthem [11], and elaborated by Víctor Sánchez Valencia [10]. Dowty’s system internalized the monotonicity/polarity markings by generating strings using a categorial grammar whose categories already contain the markings that the earlier system would obtain by separate steps working on an alreadyderived string. Despite the linguistic advantages of the internalized system, no soundness proof has yet been given for it. This paper offers an account. The leading mathematical idea is to interpret categorial types as preorders (in order to talk about monotonicity in the first place), and then to add a primitive operation to the type hierarchy of taking the opposite of a preorder (in order to capture monotone decreasing functions). At the same time, the use of internalized categories also raises issues. Although these will not be addressed in full, the paper points out possible approaches to them.
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Thorne, Camilo; Calvanese, Diego
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In this paper we study the semantic data complexity of several controlled fragments of English designed for natural language frontends to OWL (Web Ontology Language) and description logic ontologybased systems. Controlled languages are fragments of natural languages, obtained by restricting natural language syntax, vocabulary and semantics with the goal of eliminating ambiguity. Semantic complexity arises from the formal logic modelling of meaning in natural language and fragments thereof. It can be characterized as the computational complexity of the reasoning problems associated to their semantic representations. Data complexity (the complexity of answering a question over an ontology, stated in terms of the data items stored therein), in particular, provides a measure of the scalability of controlled languages to ontologies, since tractable data complexity implies scalability of data access. We present maximal tractable controlled languages and minimal intractable controlled languages.
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By
Passonneau, Rebecca J.; Bhardwaj, Vikas; SallebAouissi, Ansaf; Ide, Nancy
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6 Citations
Supervised machine learning methods to model word sense often rely on human labelers to provide a single, ground truth label for each word in its context. We examine issues in establishing ground truth word sense labels using a finegrained sense inventory from WordNet. Our data consist of a sentence corpus of 1,000 sentences: 100 for each of ten moderately polysemous words. Each word was given multiple sense labels—or a multilabel—from trained and untrained annotators. The multilabels give a nuanced representation of the degree of agreement on instances. A suite of assessment metrics is used to analyze the sets of multilabels, such as comparisons of sense distributions across annotators. Our assessment indicates that the general annotation procedure is reliable, but that words differ regarding how reliably annotators can assign WordNet sense labels, independent of the number of senses. We also investigate the performance of an unsupervised machine learning method to infer ground truth labels from various combinations of labels from the trained and untrained annotators. We find tentative support for the hypothesis that performance depends on the quality of the set of multilabels, independent of the number of labelers or their training.
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By
Baker, Collin F.
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7 Citations
This paper will focus on recent and nearterm future developments at FrameNet (FN) and the interoperability issues they raise. We begin by discussing the current state of the Berkeley FN database including major changes in the data format for the latest data release. We then briefly review two recent local projects, "Rapid Vanguarding”, which has created a new interface for the frame and lexical unit definition process based on the Word Sketch Engine of Kilgarriff et al. (2004), and “Beyond the Core”, which has developed tools for annotating constructions, and created a sample “construction” of especially “interesting” constructions which are neither simply lexical nor easy for the standard parsers to parse. We also cover two current collaborations, FN’s part in the development of the manually annotated subcorpus of the American National Corpus, and a pilot study on aligning WordNet and FrameNet, to exploit the complementary strengths of these quite different resources. We discuss FNrelated research on Spanish, Japanese, German (SALSA), Chinese and other languages, and the languageindependence of frames, along with interesting FNrelated work by others, and a sketch of a large group of imageschematic frames which are now being added to FN. We close with some ideas about how FrameNet can be opened up, to allow broader participation in the development process without losing precision and coherence, including a smallscale study on acquiring data for FN using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing system.
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By
Melo, Gerard; Weikum, Gerhard
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3 Citations
Lexical databases following the wordnet paradigm capture information about words, word senses, and their relationships. A large number of existing tools and datasets are based on the original WordNet, so extending the landscape of resources aligned with WordNet leads to great potential for interoperability and to substantial synergies. Wordnets are being compiled for a considerable number of languages, however most have yet to reach a comparable level of coverage. We propose a method for automatically producing such resources for new languages based on WordNet, and analyse the implications of this approach both from a linguistic perspective as well as by considering natural language processing tasks. Our approach takes advantage of the original WordNet in conjunction with translation dictionaries. A small set of training associations is used to learn a statistical model for predicting associations between terms and senses. The associations are represented using a variety of scores that take into account structural properties as well as semantic relatedness and corpus frequency information. Although the resulting wordnets are imperfect in terms of their quality and coverage of languagespecific phenomena, we show that they constitute a cheap and suitable alternative for many applications, both for monolingual tasks as well as for crosslingual interoperability. Apart from analysing the resources directly, we conducted tests on semantic relatedness assessment and crosslingual text classification with very promising results.
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Peñas, Anselmo; Magnini, Bernardo; Forner, Pamela; Sutcliffe, Richard; Rodrigo, Álvaro; Giampiccolo, Danilo
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9 Citations
The paper offers an overview of the key issues raised during the 8 years’ activity of the Multilingual Question Answering Track at the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). The general aim of the track has been to test both monolingual and crosslanguage Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages, also drawing attention to a number of challenging issues for research in multilingual QA. The paper gives a brief description of how the task has evolved over the years and of the way in which the data sets have been created, presenting also a short summary of the different types of questions developed. The document collections adopted in the competitions are outlined as well, and data about participation is provided. Moreover, the main measures used to evaluate system performances are explained and an overall analysis of the results achieved is presented.
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By
Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker
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3 Citations
Quasiset theory is a ZFUlike axiomatic set theory, which deals with two kinds of urelements: Matoms, objects like the atoms of ZFU, and matoms, items for which the usual identity relation is not defined. One of the motivations to advance such a theory is to deal properly with collections of items like particles in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics when these are understood as being nonindividuals in the sense that they may be indistinguishable although identity does not apply to them. According to some authors, this is the best way to understand quantum objects. The fact that identity is not defined for matoms raises a technical difficulty: it seems impossible to follow the usual procedures to define the cardinal of collections involving these items. In this paper we propose a definition of finite cardinals in quasiset theory which works for collections involving matoms.
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By
Fellbaum, Christiane; Vossen, Piek
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4 Citations
Wordnets have been created in many languages, revealing both their lexical commonalities and diversity. The next challenge is to make multilingual wordnets fully interoperable. The EuroWordNet experience revealed the shortcomings of an interlingua based on a natural language. Instead, we propose a model based on the division of the lexicon and a languageindependent, formal ontology that serves as the hub interlinking the languagespecific lexicons. The ontology avoids the idiosyncracies of the lexicon and furthermore allows formal reasoning about the concepts it contains. We address the division of labor between ontology and lexicon. Finally, we illustrate our model in the context of a domainspecific multilingual information system based on a central ontology and interconnected wordnets in seven languages.
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Steinberger, Ralf
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11 Citations
Multilingual text processing is useful because the information content found in different languages is complementary, both regarding facts and opinions. While Information Extraction and other text mining software can, in principle, be developed for many languages, most text analysis tools have only been applied to small sets of languages because the development effort per language is large. Selftraining tools obviously alleviate the problem, but even the effort of providing training data and of manually tuning the results is usually considerable. In this paper, we gather insights by various multilingual system developers on how to minimise the effort of developing natural language processing applications for many languages. We also explain the main guidelines underlying our own effort to develop complex text mining software for tens of languages. While these guidelines—most of all: extreme simplicity—can be very restrictive and limiting, we believe to have shown the feasibility of the approach through the development of the Europe Media Monitor (EMM) family of applications (
http://emm.newsbrief.eu/overview.html
). EMM is a set of complex media monitoring tools that process and analyse up to 100,000 online news articles per day in between twenty and fifty languages. We will also touch upon the kind of language resources that would make it easier for all to develop highly multilingual text mining applications. We will argue that—to achieve this—the most needed resources would be freely available, simple, parallel and uniform multilingual dictionaries, corpora and software tools.
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By
Ide, Nancy; Fang, Alex C.; Webster, Jonathan
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This special section of Language Resources and Evaluation contains a selection of presentations from ICGL that focus on interoperability for lexical and semantic databases and ontologies. These resources in effect constitute the “hub” of semantic interoperability by providing means to link language resources such as corpora to common categories and concepts. As such, interoperability within and among these databases is the necessary next step to enable semantic compatibility for language data.
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Enqvist, Sebastian
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I develop a dynamic logic for reasoning about “interrogative belief revision”, a new branch of belief revision theory that has been developed in a small number of papers, beginning with E. J. Olsson and D. Westlund’s paper “On the role of the research agenda in epistemic change” [12]. In interrogative belief revision, epistemic states are taken to include a research agenda, consisting of questions the agent seeks to answer. I present a logic for revision of such epistemic states based on the notion of an epistemic strategy, a stable plan of action that determines changes in the agent’s research agenda. This idea is a further development of an idea put forward in [6], that changes in the research agenda of an agent should be determined by stable, “long term” research interests. I provide complete axioms and a decidability result for the logic.
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Khoussainov, Bakhadyr; Kowalski, Tomasz
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3 Citations
In this paper we investigate computable isomorphisms of Boolean algebras with operators (BAOs). We prove that there are examples of polymodal Boolean algebras with finitely many computable isomorphism types. We provide an example of a polymodal BAO such that it has exactly one computable isomorphism type but whose expansions by a constant have more than one computable isomorphism type. We also prove a general result showing that BAOs are complete with respect to the degree spectra of structures, computable dimensions, expansions by constants, and the degree spectra of relations.
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Meadows, Toby
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I provide a tableau system and completeness proof for a revised version of Carnap’s semantics for quantified modal logic. For Carnap, a sentence is possible if it is true in some first order model. However, in a similar fashion to second order logic, no sound and complete proof theory can be provided for this semantics. This factor contributed to the ultimate disappearance of Carnapian modal logic from contemporary philosophical discussion. The proof theory I discuss comes close to Carnap’s semantic vision and provides an interesting counterpoint to mainstream approaches to modal logic. Despite its historical origins, my intention is to demonstrate that this approach to modal logic is worthy of contemporary attention and that current debate is the poorer for its absence.
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Punčochář, Vít
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4 Citations
In this paper, Carnap’s modal logic C is reconstructed. It is shown that the Carnapian approach enables us to create some epistemic logics in a relatively straightforward way. These epistemic modifications of C are axiomatized and one of them is compared with intuitionistic logic. At the end of the paper, some connections between this epistemic logic and Medvedev’s logic of finite problems and inquisitive semantics are shortly discussed.
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Rasga, João; Sernadas, Amílcar; Sernadas, Cristina
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4 Citations
The novel notion of importing logics is introduced, subsuming as special cases several kinds of asymmetric combination mechanisms, like temporalization [8, 9], modalization [7] and exogenous enrichment [13, 5, 12, 4, 1]. The graphtheoretic approach proposed in [15] is used, but formulas are identified with irreducible paths in the signature multigraph instead of equivalence classes of such paths, facilitating proofs involving inductions on formulas. Importing is proved to be strongly conservative. Conservative results follow as corollaries for temporalization, modalization and exogenous enrichment.
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Romeijn, JanWillem
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2 Citations
This paper develops a probabilistic model of belief change under interpretation shifts, in the context of a problem case from dynamic epistemic logic. Van Benthem [4] has shown that a particular kind of belief change, typical for dynamic epistemic logic, cannot be modelled by standard Bayesian conditioning. I argue that the problems described by van Benthem come about because the belief change alters the semantics in which the change is supposed to be modelled: the new information induces a shift in the interpretation of the sentences. In this paper I show that interpretation shifts can be modeled in terms of updating by conditioning. The model derives from the knowledge structures developed by Fagin et al [8], and hinges on a distinction between the propositional and informational content of sentences. Finally, I show that DempsterShafer theory provides the appropriate probability kinematics for the model.
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Solin, Kim
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2 Citations
This paper presents an abstractalgebraic formulation of action facilitating reasoning about two opposing agents. Two dual nondeterministic choice operators are formulated abstractalgebraically: angelic (or user) choice and demonic (or system) choice. Iteration operators are also defined. As an application, Hoarestyle correctness rules are established by means of the algebra. A negation operator is also discussed.
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Tranchini, Luca
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7 Citations
We present a natural deduction system for dualintuitionistic logic. Its distinctive feature is that it is a singlepremise multipleconclusions system. Its relationships with the natural deduction systems for intuitionistic and classical logic are discussed.
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Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Savas, Bora; Monachini, Monica; Soria, Claudia; Calzolari, Nicoletta
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1 Citations
This paper demonstrates that WordnetLMF, a version of ISO LMF, allows us to effectively design and implement Web services for accessing WordNettype semantic lexicons that conform to the REST Web service architecture. The implemented prototype service currently provides access to native wordnets as well as to a bilingual concept dictionary. This paper thus describes slight revisions that were made to the WordnetLMF specifications to model and accommodate a nonwordnetnative bilingual concept dictionary.
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By
Fang, Alex Chengyu
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There are two different levels of interoperability for language resources: operational interoperability and conceptual interoperability. The former refers to the standardization of the formal aspects of language resources so that different resources can work together. The latter refers to the standardization of the notional representation of the semantic content of the analysis. This article addresses both issues but focuses on the latter through a description of the annotation and analysis of the International Corpus of English, which is a corpus for the study of English as a global language. The project is parameterised by component, regional subcorpora and a set of predefined textual categories. The onemillionword British component has been constructed, grammatically tagged, and syntactically parsed. This article is first of all a description of steps taken to ensure conformity within the project. These include corpus design, partofspeech tagging, and syntactic parsing. The article will then present a study that examines the use of adverbial clauses across speech and writing, illustrating the imminent necessity for interoperable analysis of linguistic data.
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By
Keppens, Jeroen
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8 Citations
Bayesian networks (BN) and argumentation diagrams (AD) are two predominant approaches to legal evidential reasoning, that are often treated as alternatives to one another. This paper argues that they are, instead, complimentary and proposes the beginnings of a method to employ them in such a manner. The Bayesian approach tends to be used as a means to analyse the findings of forensic scientists. As such, it constitutes a means to perform evidential reasoning. The design of Bayesian networks that accurately and comprehensively represent the relationships between investigative hypotheses and evidence remains difficult and sometimes contentious, however. Argumentation diagrams are representations of reasoning, and are used as a means to scrutinise reasoning (among other applications). In evidential reasoning, they tend to be used to represent and scrutinise the way humans reason about evidence. This paper examines how argumentation diagrams can be used to scrutinise Bayesian evidential reasoning by developing a method to extract argument diagrams from BN.
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Abraham, M.; Gabbay, D. M.; Schild, U.
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2 Citations
We consider conditionals of the form A ⇒ B where A depends on the future and B on the present and past. We examine models for such conditional arising in Talmudic legal cases. We call such conditionals contrary to time conditionals.
Three main aspects will be investigated:
1.
Inverse causality from future to past, where a future condition can influence a legal event in the past (this is a man made causality).
2.
Comparison with similar features in modern law.
3.
New types of temporal logics arising from modelling the Talmudic examples.
We shall see that we need a new temporal logic,which we call Talmudic temporal logic with linear open advancing future and parallel changing past, based on two parameters for time.
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Horty, John F.; BenchCapon, Trevor J. M.
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15 Citations
This paper describes one way in which a precise reason model of precedent could be developed, based on the general idea that courts are constrained to reach a decision that is consistent with the assessment of the balance of reasons made in relevant earlier decisions. The account provided here has the additional advantage of showing how this reason model can be reconciled with the traditional idea that precedential constraint involves rules, as long as these rules are taken to be defeasible. The account presented is firmly based on a body of work that has emerged in AI and Law. This work is discussed, and there is a particular discussion of approaches based on theory construction, and how that work relates to the model described in this paper.
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Mints, Grigori
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1 Citations
A noneffective cutelimination proof for modal mucalculus has been given by G. Jäger, M. Kretz and T. Studer. Later an effective proof has been given for a subsystem M_{1} with noniterated fixpoints and positive endsequents. Using a new device we give an effective cutelimination proof for M_{1} without restriction to positive sequents.
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Vakarelov, Dimiter
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A new modal logic containing four dynamic modalities with the following informal reading is introduced:
$${\square^\forall}$$
– always necessary,
$${\square^\exists}$$
– sometimes necessary, and their duals –
$${\diamondsuit^\forall}$$
– always possibly, and
$${\diamondsuit^\exists}$$
– sometimes possibly. We present a complete axiomatization with respect to the intended formal semantics and prove decidability via fmp.
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By
Gurevich, Yuri; Passmore, Grant Olney
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1 Citations
John organized a state lottery and his wife won the main prize. You may feel that the event of her winning wasn’t particularly random, but how would you argue that in a fair court of law? Traditional probability theory does not even have the notion of random events. Algorithmic information theory does, but it is not applicable to realworld scenarios like the lottery one. We attempt to rectify that.
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By
Jung, A.; Rivieccio, U.
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7 Citations
We develop a Priestleystyle duality theory for different classes of algebras having a bilattice reduct. A similar investigation has already been realized by B. Mobasher, D. Pigozzi, G. Slutzki and G. Voutsadakis, but only from an abstract categorytheoretic point of view. In the present work we are instead interested in a concrete study of the topological spaces that correspond to bilattices and some related algebras that are obtained through expansions of the algebraic language.
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Marra, Vincenzo; Spada, Luca
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12 Citations
We offer a proof of the duality theorem for finitely presented MValgebras and rational polyhedra, a folklore and yet fundamental result. Our approach develops first a general dual adjunction between MValgebras and subspaces of Tychonoff cubes, endowed with the transformations that are definable in the language of MValgebras. We then show that this dual adjunction restricts to a duality between semisimple MValgebras and closed subspaces of Tychonoff cubes. The duality theorem for finitely presented objects is obtained by a further specialisation. Our treatment is aimed at showing exactly which parts of the basic theory of MValgebras are needed in order to establish these results, with an eye towards future generalisations.
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By
Montagna, Franco
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3 Citations
In this paper we investigate the connections between quantifier elimination, decidability and Uniform Craig Interpolation in Δcore fuzzy logics added with propositional quantifiers. As a consequence, we are able to prove that several propositional fuzzy logics have a conservative extension which is a Δcore fuzzy logic and has Uniform Craig Interpolation.
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By
Odintsov, Sergei P.; Latkin, E. I.
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5 Citations
Earlier algebraic semantics for Belnapian modal logics were defined in terms of twiststructures over modal algebras. In this paper we introduce the class of BKlattices, show that this class coincides with the abstract closure of the class of twiststructures, and it forms a variety. We prove that the lattice of subvarieties of the variety of BKlattices is dually isomorphic to the lattice of extensions of Belnapian modal logic BK. Finally, we describe invariants determining a twiststructure over a modal algebra.
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By
Ono, Hiroakira
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1 Citations
This paper discusses Crawley completions of residuated lattices. While MacNeille completions have been studied recently in relation to logic, Crawley completions (i.e. complete ideal completions), which are another kind of regular completions, have not been discussed much in this relation while many important algebraic works on Crawley completions had been done until the end of the 70’s.
In this paper, basic algebraic properties of ideal completions and Crawley completions of residuated lattices are studied first in their conncetion with the join infinite distributivity and Heyting implication. Then some results on algebraic completeness and conservativity of Heyting implication in substructural predicate logics are obtained as their consequences.
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By
Skvortsov, Dmitrij
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1 Citations
The completeness w.r.t. Kripke frames with equality (or, equivalently, w.r.t. Kripke sheaves, [8] or [4, Sect. 3.6]) is established for three superintuitionistic predicate logics: (QH + D*), (QH + D*&K), (QH + D*&K&J). Here QH is intuitionistic predicate logic, J is the principle of the weak excluded middle, K is Kuroda’s axiom, and D* (cf. [12]) is a weakened version of the wellknown constant domains principle D. Namely, the formula D states that any individual has ancestors in earlier worlds, and D* states that any individual has
$${\neg\neg}$$
ancestors (i.e., ancestors up to
$${\neg\neg}$$
equality) in earlier worlds. In particular, the logic (QH + D*&K&J) is the Kripke sheaf completion of (QH + E&K&J), where E is a version of Markov’s principle (cf. [12]). On the other hand, we show that the logic (QH + D*&J) is incomplete w.r.t. Kripke sheaves.
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By
Visser, Albert
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2 Citations
In this paper we formulate a version of Second Incompleteness Theorem. The idea is that a sequential sentence has ‘consistency power’ over a theory if it enables us to construct a bounded interpretation of that theory. An interpretation of V in U is bounded if, for some n, all translations of Vsentences are Uprovably equivalent to sentences of complexity less than n. We call a sequential sentence with consistency power over T a proconsistency statement for T. We study proconsistency statements. We provide an example of a proconsistency statement for a sequential sentence A that is weaker than an ordinary consistency statement for A. We show that, if A is
$${{\sf S}^{1}_{2}}$$
, this sentence has some further appealing properties, specifically that it is an Orey sentence for EA.
The basic ideas of the paper essentially involve sequential theories. We have a brief look at the wider environment of the results, to wit the case of theories with pairing.
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By
Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik
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1 Citations
In his logical papers, Leo Esakia studied corresponding ordered topological spaces and orderpreserving mappings. Similar spaces and mappings appear in many other application areas such the analysis of causality in spacetime. It is known that under reasonable conditions, both the topology and the original order relation
$${\preccurlyeq}$$
can be uniquely reconstructed if we know the “interior”
$${\prec}$$
of the order relation. It is also known that in some cases, we can uniquely reconstruct
$${\prec}$$
(and hence, topology) from
$${\preccurlyeq}$$
. In this paper, we show that, in general, under reasonable conditions, the open order
$${\prec}$$
(and hence, the corresponding topology) can be uniquely determined from its closure
$${\preccurlyeq}$$
.
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By
Artemov, Sergei N.
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16 Citations
Justification Logic provides an axiomatic description of justifications and delegates the question of their nature to semantics. In this note, we address the conceptual issue of the logical type of justifications: we argue that justifications in the logical setting are naturally interpreted as sets of formulas which leads to a class of epistemic models that we call modular models. We show that Fitting models for Justification Logic naturally encode modular models and can be regarded as convenient premodels of the former.
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