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By
Béchet, Denis; Foret, Annie; Tellier, Isabelle
3 Citations
This paper investigates the learnability by positive examples in the sense of Gold of Pregroup Grammars. In a first part, Pregroup Grammars are presented and a new parsing strategy is proposed. Then, theoretical learnability and nonlearnability results for subclasses of Pregroup Grammars are proved. In the last two parts, we focus on learning Pregroup Grammars from a special kind of input called featuretagged examples. A learning algorithm based on the parsing strategy presented in the first part is given. Its validity is proved and its properties are examplified.
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By
Casadio, Claudia
2 Citations
We know from the literature in theoretical linguistics that interrogative constructions in Italian have particular syntactic properties, due to the liberal word order and the rich inflectional system. In this paper we show that the calculus of pregroups represents a flexible and efficient computational device for the analysis and derivation of Italian sentences and questions. In this context the distinction between direct vs. indirect statements and questions is explored.
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By
Egg, Markus
2 Citations
Compositionality often presupposes a notion of opacity in that the combination of the meanings M and N of the subconstituents of a constituent C into the meaning of C must be blind to the inner structure of M and N. However, for cases where there is no direct 11 mapping between (surface) syntactic and semantic structure, opacity seems to be too strong a restriction on semantic construction. One could resolve this dilemma by basing semantic construction on another, not directly visible level of syntactic structure. But this strategy is not adopted by advocates of a surfaceoriented syntactic structure such as the one in HPSG (Pollard and Sag, (1994). Headdriven phrase structure grammer. CSLI and university of Chicago Press). I will argue that the more relaxed notion of compositionality advocated in Egg (Mismatches at the syntaxsemanties interface. In S. Müller (Ed.), Proceedings of the 11th international conferance on head driven phrase structure grammer (pp. 119–139). Stanford: CSLI Publications), which relinquishes opacity, allows semantic construction from the syntactic surface even if there is no direct 11 mapping between the two. As it allows a constituent to refer to only a part of its syntactic sister constituent, it extends straightforwardly to cases like John’s former car (Larson and Cho Nat Lang Semant 11:217–247, 2003), where the semantic contributions of its syntactic subconstituents are intertwined in the meaning of the whole expression in that this meaning looks schematically like m_{1}(n_{1}(m_{2}(n_{2}))), where M breaks down into m_{1} and M_{2}, and N into n_{1} and n_{2}, respectively.
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By
Tam, YikCheung; Lane, Ian; Schultz, Tanja
9 Citations
We propose a novel approach to crosslingual language model and translation lexicon adaptation for statistical machine translation (SMT) based on bilingual latent semantic analysis. Bilingual LSA enables latent topic distributions to be efficiently transferred across languages by enforcing a onetoone topic correspondence during training. Using the proposed bilingual LSA framework, model adaptation can be performed by, first, inferring the topic posterior distribution of the source text and then applying the inferred distribution to an ngram language model of the target language and translation lexicon via marginal adaptation. The background phrase table is enhanced with the additional phrase scores computed using the adapted translation lexicon. The proposed framework also features rapid bootstrapping of LSA models for new languages based on a source LSA model of another language. Our approach is evaluated on the Chinese–English MT06 test set using the mediumscale SMT system and the GALE SMT system measured in BLEU and NIST scores. Improvement in both scores is observed on both systems when the adapted language model and the adapted translation lexicon are applied individually. When the adapted language model and the adapted translation lexicon are applied simultaneously, the gain is additive. At the 95% confidence interval of the unadapted baseline system, the gain in both scores is statistically significant using the mediumscale SMT system, while the gain in the NIST score is statistically significant using the GALE SMT system.
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By
Buszkowski, Wojciech
9 Citations
We discuss the logic of pregroups, introduced by Lambek [34], and its connections with other type logics and formal grammars. The paper contains some new ideas and results: the cutelimination theorem and a normalization theorem for an extended system of this logic, its PTIME decidability, its interpretation in L1, and a general construction of (preordered) bilinear algebras and pregroups whose universe is an arbitrary monoid.
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By
Béchet, Denis
8 Citations
The paper presents a way to transform pregroup grammars into contextfree grammars using functional composition. The same technique can also be used for the proofnets of multiplicative cyclic linear logic and for Lambek calculus allowing empty premises.
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By
Preller, Anne
2 Citations
Pregroup grammars have a cubic recognition algorithm. Here, we define a correct and complete recognition and parsing algorithm and give sufficient conditions for the algorithm to run in linear time. These conditions are satisfied by a large class of pregroup grammars, including grammars that handle coordinate structures and distant constituents.
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By
Francez, Nissim; Kaminski, Michael
10 Citations
The paper presents a generalization of pregroup, by which a freelygenerated pregroup is augmented with a finite set of commuting inequations, allowing limited commutativity and cancelability. It is shown that grammars based on the commutationaugmented pregroups generate mildly contextsensitive languages. A version of Lambek’s switching lemma is established for these pregroups. Polynomial parsability and semilinearity are shown for languages generated by these grammars.
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By
KiślakMalinowska, Aleksandra
1 Citations
In this paper we concentrate mainly on the notion of βpregroups, which are pregroups (first introduced by Lambek [18] in 1999) enriched with modality operators. βpregroups were first proposed by Fadda [11] in 2001. The motivation to introduce them was to limit (locally) the associativity in the calculus considered. In this paper we present this new calculus in the form of a rewriting system, prove the very important feature of this system  that in a given derivation the nonexpanding rules must always proceed noncontracting ones in order the derivation to be minimal (normalization theorem). We also propose a sequent system for this calculus and prove the cut elimination theorem for it. As an illustration we show how to use βpregroups for linguistical applications.
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By
Fügen, Christian; Waibel, Alex; Kolss, Muntsin
10 Citations
With increasing globalization, communication across language and cultural boundaries is becoming an essential requirement of doing business, delivering education, and providing public services. Due to the considerable cost of human translation services, only a small fraction of text documents and an even smaller percentage of spoken encounters, such as international meetings and conferences, are translated, with most resorting to the use of a common language (e.g. English) or not taking place at all. Technology may provide a potentially revolutionary way out if realtime, domainindependent, simultaneous speech translation can be realized. In this paper, we present a simultaneous speech translation system based on statistical recognition and translation technology. We discuss the technology, various system improvements and propose mechanisms for userfriendly delivery of the result. Over extensive component and endtoend system evaluations and comparisons with human translation performance, we conclude that machines can already deliver comprehensible simultaneous translation output. Moreover, while machine performance is affected by recognition errors (and thus can be improved), human performance is limited by the cognitive challenge of performing the task in real time.
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By
Fleury, MarieRenée; Quatrini, Myriam
The aim of this paper is to define a λcalculus typed in aMixed (commutative and noncommutative) Intuitionistic Linear Logic. The terms of such a calculus are the labelling of proofs of a linear intuitionistic mixed natural deduction NILL, which is based on the noncommutative linear multiplicative sequent calculus MNL [RuetAbrusci 99]. This linear λcalculus involves three linear arrows: two directional arrows and a nondirectional one (the usual linear arrow). Moreover, the terms are provided with seriesparallel orders on free variables.
We prove a normalization theorem which explicitly gives the behaviour of the order during the normalization procedure.
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By
Han, Chunghye
3 Citations
In relative clauses, the wh relative pronoun can be embedded in a larger phrase, as in “a boy [whose brother] Mary hit” and “a boy [whose brother’s friend] Mary hit”. In such examples, we say that the larger phrase containing the whword has piedpiped along with the whword. In this paper, using a similar syntactic analysis for wh piedpiping as in Han (A talk presented at TAG+6, Venice, Italy, www.sfu.ca/∼chunghye/papers/tag6rcslides.pdf, 2002) and further developed in Kallmeyer and Scheffler (Proceedings of TAG+7, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 32–39, 2004), I propose a compositional semantics for relative clauses of the sort illustrated above using Synchronous Tree Adjoining Grammar, a pairing of Tree Adjoining Grammars. It will be shown that (i) the elementary tree representing the logical form of a wh relative pronoun provides a generalized quantifier, and (ii) the semantic composition of the piedpiped material and the whword is achieved through adjoining the elementary tree representing the logical form of the piedpiped material to the elementary tree representing the logical form of the whword in the semantics.
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By
Lund, Kristine
7 Citations
The objective of this research is twofold. Firstly, we argue that gaze and gesture play an essential part in interactive explanation and that it is thus a multimodal phenomenon. Two corpora are analyzed: (1) a group of teacher novices and experts and (2) a student teacher dyad, both of whom construct explanations of students’ reasoning after viewing videos of student dyads who are solving physics problems. We illustrate roles of gaze in explanations constructed within a group and roles of gesture in explanation constructed within a dyad. Secondly, we show how the analysis of such knowledgerich empirical data pinpoints particular difficulties in designing human–computer interfaces that can support explanation between humans, or a fortiori, that can support explanation between a human and a computer.
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By
Katzir, Roni
74 Citations
Scalar implicatures depend on alternatives in order to avoid the symmetry problem. I argue for a structuresensitive characterization of these alternatives: the alternatives for a structure are all those structures that are at most as complex as the original one. There have been claims in the literature that complexity is irrelevant for implicatures and that the relevant condition is the semantic notion of monotonicity. I provide new data that pose a challenge to the use of monotonicity and that support the structuresensitive definition. I show that what appeared to be a problem for the complexity approach is overcome once an appropriate notion of complexity is adopted, and that upon closer inspection, the argument in favor of monotonicity turns out to be an argument against it and in favor of the complexity approach.
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By
Stojanovic, Isidora
63 Citations
In this paper, I take issue with an idea that has emerged from recent relativist proposals, and, in particular, from Lasersohn (Linguistics and Philosophy 28: 643–686, 2005), according to which the correct semantics for taste predicates must use contents that are functions of a judge parameter (in addition to a possible world parameter) rather than implicit arguments lexically associated with such predicates. I argue that the relativist account and the contextualist implicit argumentaccount are, from the viewpoint of semantics, not much more than notational variants of one another. In other words, given any sentence containing a taste predicate, and given any assignment of values to the relevant parameters, the two accounts predict the same truth value and are, in that sense, equivalent. I also look at possible reasons for preferring one account over the other. The phenomenon of “faultless disagreement” (cf. Kölbel, Truth without objectivity, 2002) is often believed to be one such reason. I argue, against Kölbel and Lasersohn, that disagreement is never faultless: either the two parties genuinely disagree, hence if the one is right then the other is wrong, or the two parties are both right, but their apparent disagreement boils down to a misunderstanding. What is more, even if there were faultless disagreement, I argue that relativism would fail to account for it. The upshot of my paper, then, is to show that there is not much disagreement between a contextualist account that models the judge parameter as an implicit argument to the taste predicate, and a relativist account that models it as a parameter of the circumstances of evaluation. The choice between the two accounts, at least when talking about taste, is thus, to a large extent, a matter of taste.
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By
Barba, Juan
2 Citations
This paper aims to argue for two related statements: first, that formal semantics should not be conceived of as interpreting natural language expressions in a single model (a very large one representing the world as a whole, or something like that) but as interpreting them in many different models (formal counterparts, say, of little fragments of reality); second, that accepting such a conception of formal semantics yields a better comprehension of the relation between semantics and pragmatics and of the role to be played by formal semantics in the general enterprise of understanding meaning. For this purpose, three kinds of arguments are given: firstly, empirical arguments showing that the many models approach is the most straightforward and natural way of giving a formal counterpart to natural language sentences. Secondly, logical arguments proving the logical impossibility of a single universal model. And thirdly, theoretical arguments to the effect that such a conception of formal semantics fits in a natural and fruitful way with pragmatic theories and facts. In passing, this conception will be shown to cast some new light on the old problems raised by liar and sorites paradoxes.
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By
Bonami, Olivier; Godard, Danièle
2 Citations
Previous studies of parenthetical expressions suffer from not making a clear distinction between prosodic, syntactic, semantic, and illocutionary properties. We distinguish parentheticality, the illocutionary property of providing a comment on the main content of the utterance, from incidentality, the grammatical status of an expression which is set apart prosodically from the rest of the sentence. While incidentality correlates with positional and scopal properties, parentheticality is an orthogonal property with no specific reflex in form. We then discuss the analysis of parentheticality at the syntax semantics interface, focusing on French evaluative adverbs such as bizarrement ‘oddly’. The issue is to model the fact that parenthetical content can appear syntactically embedded, while being interpreted outside of the main content on which it provides a comment. We show that Potts’s analysis [Potts, C. (2005). The logic of conventional implicatures. Oxford University Press], while addressing many of the crucial properties of evaluatives, fails to account for their semantic embeddability. We propose an explicit analysis within an HPSG grammar, based on a modification of MRS (Copestake et al. (2006) Research on Language and Computation, 3, 281–332). In this framework, parenthetical content can be ‘set apart’ from the main semantic composition and interpreted at a higher level. The tight integration of syntax and semantics provided by HPSG allows us to introduce appropriate interface constraints on where this parenthetical content can scope.
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By
Solstad, Torgrim
1 Citations
The German causal preposition durch (‘by’, ‘by means of’, ‘through’) specifies the nature of the causing event in a causal relation between events. In combination with a causative predicate, durch simply contributes additional information concerning the causing event in the causal relation expressed by the predicate. When combined with a noncausative change of state predicate, however, durch may also introduce such a causal relation by itself. It is shown that modelling this varying contribution of durch poses a challenge to formalsemantic analyses applying mechanisms of strict compositionality such as functional application. An alternative formalism based on recent developments in Discourse Representation Theory is developed, including unification as a mode of composition as well as a more elaborate analysis of presuppositional phenomena. It is further argued that the analysis can be restated in pragmatic terms, providing an argument for presuppositions applying solely to the sentenceinternal level.
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By
Amaral, Patricia; Roberts, Craige; Smith, E. Allyn
42 Citations
We review Potts’ influential book on the semantics of conventional implicature (CI), offering an explication of his technical apparatus and drawing out the proposal’s implications, focusing on the class of CIs he calls supplements. While we applaud many facets of this work, we argue that careful considerations of the pragmatics of CIs will be required in order to yield an empirically and explanatorily adequate account.
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By
Chafai, Nicolas Ech; Pelachaud, Catherine; Pelé, Danielle
1 Citations
In this paper we propose a study of coverbal gesture expressivity during a conversational interaction. The work is based on the analysis of gesture expressivity over time, that we have conducted on two clips of 2D animations. The first results point out two types of modulations in gesture expressivity that we relate to the rhetorical functions of the discourse. These results extend the knowledge about gesture expressivity from emotion and personality issues to pragmatical ones. An evaluation study is proposed to measure the effects of the modulations.
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By
Merola, Giorgio
3 Citations
The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal, and type. The annotation scheme allows to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the athletes' gestures and consequently to put forward the hypothesis that the mental images expressed by the gestures performed while reliving positive and negative experience contain not only visual and propositional but also sensorymotor and emotional components.
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By
Kipp, Michael; Neff, Michael; Albrecht, Irene
26 Citations
The empirical investigation of human gesture stands at the center of multiple research disciplines, and various gesture annotation schemes exist, with varying degrees of precision and required annotation effort. We present a gesture annotation scheme for the specific purpose of automatically generating and animating characterspecific hand/arm gestures, but with potential general value. We focus on how to capture temporal structure and locational information with relatively little annotation effort. The scheme is evaluated in terms of how accurately it captures the original gestures by recreating those gestures on an animated character using the annotated data. This paper presents our scheme in detail and compares it to other approaches.
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By
Mostefa, Djamel; Moreau, Nicolas; Choukri, Khalid; Potamianos, Gerasimos; Chu, Stephen M.; Tyagi, Ambrish; Casas, Josep R.; Turmo, Jordi; Cristoforetti, Luca; Tobia, Francesco; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Mylonakis, Vassilis; Talantzis, Fotios; Burger, Susanne; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Bernardin, Keni; Rochet, Cedrick
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39 Citations
The analysis of lectures and meetings inside smart rooms has recently attracted much interest in the literature, being the focus of international projects and technology evaluations. A key enabler for progress in this area is the availability of appropriate multimodal and multisensory corpora, annotated with rich human activity information during lectures and meetings. This paper is devoted to exactly such a corpus, developed in the framework of the European project CHIL, “Computers in the Human Interaction Loop”. The resulting data set has the potential to drastically advance the stateoftheart, by providing numerous synchronized audio and video streams of real lectures and meetings, captured in multiple recording sites over the past 4 years. It particularly overcomes typical shortcomings of other existing databases that may contain limited sensory or monomodal data, exhibit constrained human behavior and interaction patterns, or lack data variability. The CHIL corpus is accompanied by rich manual annotations of both its audio and visual modalities. These provide a detailed multichannel verbatim orthographic transcription that includes speaker turns and identities, acoustic condition information, and named entities, as well as video labels in multiple camera views that provide multiperson 3D head and 2D facial feature location information. Over the past 3 years, the corpus has been crucial to the evaluation of a multitude of audiovisual perception technologies for human activity analysis in lecture and meeting scenarios, demonstrating its utility during internal evaluations of the CHIL consortium, as well as at the recent international CLEAR and Rich Transcription evaluations. The CHIL corpus is publicly available to the research community.
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By
Foster, Mary Ellen; Oberlander, Jon
21 Citations
Humans are known to use a wide range of nonverbal behaviour while speaking. Generating naturalistic embodied speech for an artificial agent is therefore an application where techniques that draw directly on recorded human motions can be helpful. We present a system that uses corpusbased selection strategies to specify the head and eyebrow motion of an animated talking head. We first describe how a domainspecific corpus of facial displays was recorded and annotated, and outline the regularities that were found in the data. We then present two different methods of selecting motions for the talking head based on the corpus data: one that chooses the majority option in all cases, and one that makes a weighted choice among all of the options. We compare these methods to each other in two ways: through crossvalidation against the corpus, and by asking human judges to rate the output. The results of the two evaluation studies differ: the crossvalidation study favoured the majority strategy, while the human judges preferred schedules generated using weighted choice. The judges in the second study also showed a preference for the original corpus data over the output of either of the generation strategies.
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By
Allwood, Jens; Kopp, Stefan; Grammer, Karl; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Koppensteiner, Markus
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13 Citations
Communicative feedback refers to unobtrusive (usually short) vocal or bodily expressions whereby a recipient of information can inform a contributor of information about whether he/she is able and willing to communicate, perceive the information, and understand the information. This paper provides a theory for embodied communicative feedback, describing the different dimensions and features involved. It also provides a corpus analysis part, describing a first data coding and analysis method geared to find the features postulated by the theory. The corpus analysis part describes different methods and statistical procedures and discusses their applicability and the possible insights gained with these methods.
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By
Caridakis, George; Raouzaiou, Amaryllis; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Mancini, Maurizio; Karpouzis, Kostas; Malatesta, Lori; Pelachaud, Catherine
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26 Citations
This work is about multimodal and expressive synthesis on virtual agents, based on the analysis of actions performed by human users. As input we consider the image sequence of the recorded human behavior. Computer vision and image processing techniques are incorporated in order to detect cues needed for expressivity features extraction. The multimodality of the approach lies in the fact that both facial and gestural aspects of the user’s behavior are analyzed and processed. The mimicry consists of perception, interpretation, planning and animation of the expressions shown by the human, resulting not in an exact duplicate rather than an expressive model of the user’s original behavior.
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By
Poggi, Isabella; Cavicchio, Federica; Magno Caldognetto, Emanuela
8 Citations
Irony has been studied by famous scholars across centuries, as well as more recently in cognitive and pragmatic research. The prosodic and visual signals of irony were also studied. Irony is a communicative act in which the Sender’s literal goal is to communicate a meaning x, but through this meaning the Sender has the goal to communicate another meaning, y, which is contrasting, sometimes even opposite, to meaning x. In this case we have an antiphrastic irony. So an ironic act is an indirect speech act, in that its true meaning, the one really intended by the Sender, is not the one communicated by the literal meaning of the communicative act: it must be understood through inferences by the Addressee. The ironic statement may concern an event, object or person, and in this case, the Addressee, or a third person, or even the Sender itself (Selfirony). In this paper we define irony in terms of a goal and belief view of communication, and show how the annotation scheme, the AnvilScore, and illustrate aspects of its expressive power by applying it to a particular case: ironic communication in a judicial debate.
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By
Pianesi, Fabio; Zancanaro, Massimo; Lepri, Bruno; Cappelletti, Alessandro
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22 Citations
In this paper we present an annotated audio–video corpus of multiparty meetings. The multimodal corpus provides for each subject involved in the experimental sessions six annotation dimensions referring to group dynamics; speech activity and body activity. The corpus is based on 11 audio and video recorded sessions which took place in a lab setting appropriately equipped with cameras and microphones. Our main concern in collecting this multimodal corpus was to explore the possibility of providing feedback services to facilitate group processes and to enhance self awareness among small groups engaged in meetings. We therefore introduce a coding scheme for annotating relevant functional roles that appear in a small group interaction. We also discuss the reliability of the coding scheme and we present the first results for automatic classification.
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By
Allwood, Jens; Cerrato, Loredana; Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia
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60 Citations
This paper deals with a multimodal annotation scheme dedicated to the study of gestures in interpersonal communication, with particular regard to the role played by multimodal expressions for feedback, turn management and sequencing. The scheme has been developed under the framework of the MUMIN network and tested on the analysis of multimodal behaviour in short video clips in Swedish, Finnish and Danish. The preliminary results obtained in these studies show that the reliability of the categories defined in the scheme is acceptable, and that the scheme as a whole constitutes a versatile analysis tool for the study of multimodal communication behaviour.
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By
Reyle, Uwe; Rossdeutscher, Antje; Kamp, Hans
5 Citations
This paper proposes a method for computing the temporal aspects of the interpretations of a variety of Germa sentences. The method is strictly modular in the sense that it allows each meaningbearing sentence constituent to make its own, separate, contribution to the semantic representation of any sentence containing it. The semantic representation of a sentence is reached in several stages. First, an ‘initial semantic representation’ is constructed, using a syntactic analysis of the sentence as input. This initial representation is then transformed into the definitive representation by a series of transformations which reflect the ways in which the contributions from different constituents of the sentence interact. Since the different constituents which make their respective contributions to the meaning of the sentence are in most instances ambiguous, the initial representations are typically of a high degree of underspecification.
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By
Blyth, T. S.; Fang, Jie
2 Citations
An algebra A is said to be congruence coherent if every subalgebra of A that contains a class of some congruence
$$\vartheta$$
on A is a union of
$$\vartheta$$
classes. This property has been investigated in several varieties of latticebased algebras. These include, for example, de Morgan algebras, palgebras, double palgebras, and double MSalgebras. Here we determine precisely when the property holds in the class of symmetric extended de Morgan algebras.
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By
Rowbottom, Darrell P.
7 Citations
It is a common view that the axioms of probability can be derived from the following assumptions: (a) probabilities reflect (rational) degrees of belief, (b) degrees of belief can be measured as betting quotients; and (c) a rational agent must select betting quotients that are coherent. In this paper, I argue that a consideration of reasonable betting behaviour, with respect to the alleged derivation of the first axiom of probability, suggests that (b) and (c) are incorrect. In particular, I show how a rational agent might assign a ‘probability’ of zero to an event which she is sure will occur.
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By
Jäger, Gerhard
21 Citations
Gärdenfors (Conceptual spaces, 2000) argues that the semantic domains that natural language deals with have a geometrical structure. He gives evidence that simple natural language adjectives usually denote natural properties, where a natural property is a convex region of such a “conceptual space.” In this paper I will show that this feature of natural categories need not be stipulated as basic. In fact, it can be shown to be the result of evolutionary dynamics of communicative strategies under very general assumptions.
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By
Fernando, Tim
6 Citations
Events and situations are represented by strings of temporally ordered observations, on the basis of which the events and situations are recognized. Allen’s basic interval relations are derived from superposing strings that mark interval boundaries, and Kamp’s event structures are constructed as projective limits of strings. Observations are generalized to temporal propositions, leading to eventtypes that classify eventinstances. Working with sets of strings built from temporal propositions, we obtain natural notions of bounded entailment from set inclusions. These inclusions are decidable if the sets are accepted by finite automata.
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By
Ferenczi, Miklós
9 Citations
It is known that every αdimensional quasi polyadic equality algebra (QPEA_{α}) can be considered as an αdimensional cylindric algebra satisfying the merrygo round properties
$$(CA^{+}_\alpha, \alpha \geq 4)$$
. The converse of this proposition fails to be true. It is investigated in the paper how to get algebras in QPEA from algebras in CA. Instead of QPEA the class of the finitary polyadic equality algebras (FPEA) is investigated, this class is definitionally equivalent to QPEA. It is shown, among others, that from every algebra in
$$CA^{+}_\alpha$$
a βdimensional algebra can be obtained in QPEA_{β} where
$$\beta < \alpha (\beta \geq 4)$$
, moreover the algebra obtained is representable in a sense.
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By
Teheux, Bruno
8 Citations
In this paper, we develop a duality for the varieties of a Łukasiewiczn + 1valued modal system. This duality is an extension of Stone duality for modal algebras. Some logical consequences (such as completeness results, correspondence theory...) are then derived and we propose some ideas for future research.
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By
Gabbay, Dov M.; Szałas, Andrzej
3 Citations
Secondorder quantifier elimination in the context of classical logic emerged as a powerful technique in many applications, including the correspondence theory, relational databases, deductive and knowledge databases, knowledge representation, commonsense reasoning and approximate reasoning. In the current paper we first generalize the result of Nonnengart and Szałas [17] by allowing secondorder variables to appear within higherorder contexts. Then we focus on a semantical analysis of conditionals, using the introduced technique and Gabbay’s semantics provided in [10] and substantially using a thirdorder accessibility relation. The analysis is done via finding correspondences between axioms involving conditionals and properties of the underlying thirdorder relation.
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By
Aglianò, P.; Ferreirim, I. M. A.; Montagna, F.
48 Citations
A continuous tnorm is a continuous map * from [0, 1]^{2} into [0, 1] such that
$$\langle [0, 1], *, 1 \rangle$$
is a commutative totally ordered monoid. Since the natural ordering on [0, 1] is a complete lattice ordering, each continuous tnorm induces naturally a residuation → and
$$\langle [0, 1], *,\rightarrow, 1\rangle$$
becomes a commutative naturally ordered residuated monoid, also called a hoop. The variety of basic hoops is precisely the variety generated by all algebras
$$\langle [0, 1], *,\rightarrow, 1\rangle$$
, where * is a continuous tnorm. In this paper we investigate the structure of the variety of basic hoops and some of its subvarieties. In particular we provide a complete description of the finite subdirectly irreducible basic hoops, and we show that the variety of basic hoops is generated as a quasivariety by its finite algebras. We extend these results to Hájek’s BLalgebras, and we give an alternative proof of the fact that the variety of BLalgebras is generated by all algebras arising from continuous tnorms on [0, 1] and their residua. The last part of the paper is devoted to the investigation of the subreducts of BLalgebras, of Gödel algebras and of product algebras.
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By
Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco
16 Citations
We investigate an expansion of quasiMV algebras ([10]) by a genuine quantum unary operator. The variety
$$\sqrt{\prime} {\mathbb{QMV}}$$
of such
$$\sqrt{\prime}$$
quasiMV algebras has a subquasivariety whose members—called cartesian—can be obtained in an appropriate way out of MV algebras. After showing that cartesian . quasiMV algebras generate
$$\sqrt{\prime} {\mathbb{QMV}}$$
,we prove a standard completeness theorem for
$$\sqrt{\prime} {\mathbb{QMV}}$$
w.r.t. an algebra over the complex numbers.
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By
Wu, Hua; Wang, Haifeng
29 Citations
This paper proposes a novel method for phrasebased statistical machine translation based on the use of a pivot language. To translate between languages L_{s} and L_{t} with limited bilingual resources, we bring in a third language, L_{ p}, called the pivot language. For the language pairs L_{s} − L_{ p} and L_{ p} − L_{t}, there exist large bilingual corpora. Using only L_{s} − L_{ p} and L_{ p} − L_{t} bilingual corpora, we can build a translation model for L_{s} − L_{t}. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that we can perform translation between L_{s} and L_{t} even if there is no bilingual corpus available for this language pair. Using BLEU as a metric, our pivot language approach significantly outperforms the standard model trained on a small bilingual corpus. Moreover, with a small L_{s} − L_{t} bilingual corpus available, our method can further improve translation quality by using the additional L_{s} − L_{ p} and L_{ p} − L_{t} bilingual corpora.
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By
Kracht, Marcus
5 Citations
Compositionality is often considered a fundamental principle of semantics for natural language. Yet only fairly recently has there been something of a theory of compositionality which allows to prove actual results. Basically, the lack of progress has been due to an improper understanding of what syntactic and semantic structures actually are. Many linguistic theories in one way or another confuse them by importing semantic notions into syntax or—conversely—adding syntactic detail to semantic structures. In this paper I shall outline a theory of semantic and syntactic structures and show how it avoids the problems that beset the previous theories. A particular benefit of this approach is that it allows to show results on sentential structure.
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By
Morrill, Glyn
1 Citations
Categorial grammar predated Syntactic Structures by two decades. While dramatic linguistic revolutions occupied centre stage, it tended to be the preserve of formal philosophy and philosophical linguistics: the philosophers’ grammar. Fashions change but style endures. The 1980s saw the rediscovery of the categorial calculus of Lambek (1958) and the advent of linear logic and substructural logic generally providing a context for categorial grammar soconstrued, since named type logical grammar (TLG). I think the history of the genesis and evolution of typelogical ideas is not widely known, but that the interpretation of the past is important to give direction to the future. This is the story of how a field came to a new pass.
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By
Zhu, Qibo; Inkpen, Diana; Asudeh, Ash
This paper describes the framework of the StatCan Daily Translation Extraction System (SDTES), a computer system that maps and compares webbased translation texts of Statistics Canada (StatCan) news releases in the StatCan publication The Daily. The goal is to extract translations for translation memory systems, for translation terminology building, for crosslanguage information retrieval and for corpusbased machine translation systems. Three years of officially published statistical news release texts at
http://www.statcan.ca
were collected to compose the StatCan Daily data bank. The English and French texts in this collection were roughly aligned using the GaleChurch statistical algorithm. After this, boundary markers of text segments and paragraphs were adjusted and the GaleChurch algorithm was run a second time for a more finegrained text segment alignment. To detect misaligned areas of texts and to prevent mismatched translation pairs from being selected, key textual and structural properties of the mapped texts were automatically identified and used as anchoring features for comparison and misalignment detection. The proposed method has been tested with webbased bilingual materials from five other Canadian government websites. Results show that the SDTES model is very efficient in extracting translations from published government texts, and very accurate in identifying mismatched translations. With parameters tuned, the textmapping part can be used to align corpus data collected from official government websites; and the textcomparing component can be applied in prepublication translation quality control and in evaluating the results of statistical machine translation systems.
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By
Mazzei, A.; Lombardo, V.; Sturt, P.
4 Citations
Incrementality is a widely held assumption that constrains the language processor to parse the input words from left to right. In this paper we describe the basic features of a constituencybased dynamic grammar based on Tree Adjoining Grammar, which natively fulfills a strict version of incrementality. We focus on the linguistic appeal of the formalism, analyzing a number of linguistic phenomena and exploiting the relation between dynamic constituency analysis and lexical dependencies.
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By
Cann, Ronnie; Kempson, Ruth; Purver, Matthew
11 Citations
This paper challenges the tradition of defining grammars and grammaticality independently of the context of utterance. Using dialogue phenomena, in particular elliptical utterances, it argues that the obvious dependence of such utterances on context to recover the intended interpretation should be regarded as an inherent characteristic of natural language grammars and thus applicable to the characterisation of grammaticality for all natural language strings. The paper adopts the framework of Dynamic Syntax which shifts the burden of syntactic explanation away from the definition of decontextualised syntactic structures defined over strings of words towards the characterisation of syntax as a contextdependent, incremental process whereby interpretations of strings in context are progressively built up as an utterance proceeds. This change in the way syntax is conceived, together with a demonstration that the same processes for building interpretations are used in generation as in parsing, is shown to allow a unitary account of anaphora and a range of elliptical phenomena that is typically precluded in nondynamic, structurebased theories of syntax. The paper ends by providing formal definitions of wellformedness with respect to context that preserve traditional notions of grammaticality while allowing more finegrained characterisations of wellformedness to distinguish acceptability from full (un)grammaticality.
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By
Muskens, Reinhard
16 Citations
This paper argues that modern versions of categorial grammar and in particular multimodal categorial grammar can profit considerably from reintroducing Haskell Curry’s old distinction between what he called phenogrammatics and tectogrammatics. Tectogrammatics is the abstract way in which linguistic signs are built up, while phenogrammatics deals with concrete processes of string formation and the way in which the sign ultimately manifests itself. The distinction will be modeled in a theory called Lambda Grammars in which tectogrammatics is formalized by taking linear lambda terms over a given lexicon. Phenogrammatics can then be formalized with the help of a set of modal operators. The procedure is illustrated by means of an analysis of some aspects of Dutch word order that is based on earlier multimodal work of Oehrle and Moortgat on Dutch.
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By
Ebert, Christian; Endriss, Cornelia; Gärtner, HansMartin
1 Citations
In this paper, we present data of German integrated verb second clauses and verb final relative clauses that seem problematic for a compositional analysis. We show that although the compositional analysis of restrictive relative clauses in [Janssen, T. M. (1982). In: Groenendijk et al. (eds.) Formals Methods in the study of Language (pp. 237–276). Amsterdam: UvA publications] can be adapted, it cannot be sustained due to overgeneration and must be considered unintuitive in light of the paratactic syntactic analysis for the verb second clauses from Gärtner [(2001). Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 3, 97–141]. Hence we present a conceptually simpler analysis along the lines of [Endriss and Gärtner, 2005 In: F.J. d’Avis (ed.) Deutsche Syntax: Empirie und Theorie, (pp. 195–220). Göteborg], which makes use of information structural properties of the involved clauses. We conclude with a brief discussion on the compositional status of such an approach.
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By
Epsen, Edward
We observe that in certain twoplayer repeated games of incomplete information, where information may be incomplete on both sides, it is possible for an informed player to signal his status as an informed player to the other without revealing any information about the choice of chance. The key to obtaining such a class of games is to relax the assumption that the players’ moves are observable. We show that in such cases players can achieve a kind of signaling that is “zeroknowledge”, in the sense that the other player becomes convinced that her opponent is informed without ever learning the choice of chance. Moreover, such “zeroknowledge signaling” has all of the statistical properties associated with zeroknowledge proofs in intereactive protocols. In particular, under the general assumption that moves are unobservable, such signaling leads to a class of equilibria in repeated games that are separatingin regard to the status of player 1–informed or uninformed–but only for player 2; any other player in a network, being unable to observe the moves of player 2, remains uncertain as to the status of player 1.
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By
Barker, Chris
47 Citations
I propose the first strictly compositional semantic account of same. New data, including especially NPinternal uses such as two men with the same name, suggests that same in its basic use is a quantificational element taking scope over nominals. Given typelifting as a generally available mechanism, I show that this follows naturally from the fact that same is an adjective. Independentlymotivated assumptions extend the analysis to standard examples such as Anna and Bill read the same book via a mechanism I call PARASITIC SCOPE, in which the scope of same depends on the scope of some other scopetaking element in the sentence. Although I will initially discuss the analysis in terms of a familiar Quantifier Raising framework, I go on to implement the analysis within an innovative continuationbased TypeLogical Grammar. The empirical payoff for dealing in continuations is that a simple generalization of the basic analysis gives the first ever formal account of cases in which same distributes over objects other than NP denotations, as in the relevant interpretation of John hit and killed the same man.
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By
Grosu, Alexander; Krifka, Manfred
6 Citations
This paper investigates relative constructions as in The gifted mathematician that you claim to be should be able to solve this equation, in which the head noun (gifted mathematician) is semantically dependent on an intensional operator in the relative clause (claim), even though it is not ccommanded by it. This is the kind of situation that has led, within models of linguistic description that assume a syntactic level of Logical Form, to analyses in which the head noun is interpreted within the CPinternal gap by reconstruction or interpretation of a lower element of a chain. We offer a solution that views surface representation as the input to semantics. The apparent inverted scope effects are traced back to the interpretation of the head nominal gifted mathematician as applying to individual concepts, and of the relative clause that you claim to be as including an equational statement. According to this view, the complex DP in question refers to the individual concept that exists just in the worlds that are compatible with what is generally supposed to be the case, is a gifted mathematician in those worlds, and is identical to you in those worlds. Our solution is related to the nonreconstructionist analysis of binding of pronouns that do not stand in a ccommand relationship to their binder, as in The woman that every man hugged was his mother in Jacobson (in: Harvey, Santelmann (eds.) Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory IV:161–178, 1994) and Sharvit (in: Galloway, Spence (eds.) Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory VI:227–244, 1996), and allows us to capture both similarities with and differences from the latter type of construction. We point out and offer explanations for a number of properties of such relative clauses—in particular their need for an internal intensional operator, their incompatibility with any determiner other than the definite article, and the fact that some of their properties are shared by demonstrably distinct kinds of relative clauses.
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By
Stephenson, Tamina
138 Citations
Predicates of personal taste (fun, tasty) and epistemic modals (might, must) share a similar analytical difficulty in determining whose taste or knowledge is being expressed. Accordingly, they have parallel behavior in attitude reports and in a certain kind of disagreement. On the other hand, they differ in how freely they can be linked to a contextually salient individual, with epistemic modals being much more restricted in this respect. I propose an account of both classes using Lasersohn’s (Linguistics and Philosophy 28: 643–686, 2005) “judge” parameter, at the same time arguing for crucial changes to Lasersohn’s view in order to allow the extension to epistemic modals and address empirical problems faced by his account.
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By
ArlóCosta, Horacio; Bicchieri, Cristina
2 Citations
The paper provides a framework for representing beliefcontravening hypotheses in games of perfect information. The resulting textended information structures are used to encode the notion that a player has the disposition to behave rationally at a node. We show that there are models where the condition of all players possessing this disposition at all nodes (under their control) is both a necessary and a sufficient for them to play the backward induction solution in centipede games. To obtain this result, we do not need to assume that rationality is commonly known (as is done in [Aumann (1995)]) or commonly hypothesized by the players (as done in [Samet (1996)]). The proposed model is compared with the account of hypothetical knowledge presented by Samet in [Samet (1996)] and with other possible strategies for extending information structures with conditional propositions.
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By
Bonanno, Giacomo
3 Citations
The temporal updating of an agent’s beliefs in response to a flow of information is modeled in a simple modal logic that, for every date t, contains a normal belief operator B_{t} and a nonnormal information operator I_{t} which is analogous to the ‘only knowing’ operator discussed in the computer science literature. Soundness and completeness of the logic are proved and the relationship between the proposed logic, the AGM theory of belief revision and the notion of plausibility is discussed.
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By
Ernst, Zachary; Chant, Sara Rachel
4 Citations
We argue that conceptual analyses of collective action should be informed by gametheoretic analyses of collective action. In particular, we argue that Ariel Rubenstein’s socalled ‘Electronic Mail Game’ provides a useful model of collective action, and of the formation of collective intentions.
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By
Pacuit, Eric
6 Citations
Adam Brandenburger and H. Jerome Keisler have recently discovered a two person Russellstyle paradox. They show that the following configurations of beliefs is impossible: Ann believes that Bob assumes that Ann believes that Bob’s assumption is wrong. In [7] a modal logic interpretation of this paradox is proposed. The idea is to introduce two modal operators intended to represent the agents’ beliefs and assumptions. The goal of this paper is to take this analysis further and study this paradox from the point of view of a modal logician. In particular, we show that the paradox can be seen as a theorem of an appropriate hybrid logic.
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By
Palczewski, Rafał
1 Citations
Recently predominant forms of antirealism claim that all truths are knowable. We argue that in a logical explanation of the notion of knowability more attention should be paid to its epistemic part. Especially very useful in such explanation are notions of group knowledge. In this paper we examine mainly the notion of distributed knowability and show its effectiveness in the case of Fitch’s paradox. Proposed approach raised some philosophical questions to which we try to find responses. We also show how we can combine our point of view on Fitch’s paradox with the others. Next we give an answer to the question: is distributed knowability factive? At the end, we present some details concerning a construction of antirealist modal epistemic logic.
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By
Woleński, Jan
This paper proposes a formal framework for the cognitive relation understood as an ordered pair with the cognitive subject and object of cognition as its members. The cognitive subject is represented as consisting of a language, conequence relation and a stock of accepted theories, and the object as a model of those theories. This language allows a simple formulation of the realism/antirealism controversy. In particular, Tarski’s undefinability theorem gives a philosophical argument for realism in epistemology.
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By
Douven, Igor
5 Citations
Fitch’s paradox shows, from fairly innocentlooking assumptions, that if there are any unknown truths, then there are unknowable truths. This is generally thought to deliver a blow to antirealist positions that imply that all truths are knowable. The present paper argues that a probabilistic version of antirealism escapes Fitch’s result while still offering all that antirealists should care for.
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By
Eriksson, Lina; Hájek, Alan
56 Citations
Probabilism is committed to two theses:
1)
Opinion comes in degrees—call them degrees of belief, or credences.
2)
The degrees of belief of a rational agent obey the probability calculus.
Correspondingly, a natural way to argue for probabilism is:
i)
to give an account of what degrees of belief are,
and then
ii)
to show that those things should be probabilities, on pain of irrationality.
Most of the action in the literature concerns stage ii). Assuming that stage i) has been adequately discharged, various authors move on to stage ii) with varied and ingenious arguments. But an unsatisfactory response at stage i) clearly undermines any gains that might be accrued at stage ii) as far as probabilism is concerned: if
those things are not degrees of belief, then it is irrelevant to probabilism whether
they should be probabilities or not.
In this paper we scrutinize the state of play regarding stage i). We critically examine several of the leading accounts of degrees of belief: reducing them to corresponding betting behavior (de Finetti); measuring them by that behavior (Jeffrey); and analyzing them in terms of preferences and their role in decisionmaking more generally (Ramsey, Lewis, Maher). We argue that the accounts fail, and so they are unfit to subserve arguments for probabilism. We conclude more positively: ‘degree of belief’ should be taken as a primitive concept that forms the basis of our best theory of rational belief and decision: probabilism.
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By
Fallis, Don
16 Citations
Several different Bayesian models of epistemic utilities (see, e.g., [37], [24], [40], [46]) have been used to explain why it is rational for scientists to perform experiments. In this paper, I argue that a model–suggested independently by Patrick Maher [40] and Graham Oddie [46]–that assigns epistemic utility to degrees of belief in hypotheses provides the most comprehensive explanation. This is because this proper scoring rule (PSR) model captures a wider range of scientifically acceptable attitudes toward epistemic risk than the other Bayesian models that have been proposed. I also argue, however, that even the PSR model places unreasonably tight restrictions on a scientist’s attitude toward epistemic risk. As a result, such Bayesian models of epistemic utilities fail as normative accounts–not just as descriptive accounts (see, e.g., [31], [14])–of scientific inquiry.
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By
Hawthorne, James; Makinson, David
34 Citations
We chart the ways in which closure properties of consequence relations for uncertain inference take on different forms according to whether the relations are generated in a quantitative or a qualitative manner. Among the main themes are: the identification of watershed conditions between probabilistically and qualitatively sound rules; failsafe and classicality transforms of qualitatively sound rules; nonHorn conditions satisfied by probabilistic consequence; representation and completeness problems; and thresholdsensitive conditions such as ‘preface’ and ‘lottery’ rules.
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By
Huber, Franz
13 Citations
The paper provides an argument for the thesis that an agent’s degrees of disbelief should obey the ranking calculus. This Consistency Argument is based on the Consistency Theorem. The latter says that an agent’s belief set is and will always be consistent and deductively closed iff her degrees of entrenchment satisfy the ranking axioms and are updated according to the ranktheoretic update rules.
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By
Maher, Patrick
28 Citations
How can formal methods be applied to philosophical problems that involve informal concepts of ordinary language? Carnap answered this question by describing a methodology that he called “explication." Strawson objected that explication changes the subject and does not address the original philosophical problem; this paper shows that Carnap’s response to that objection was inadequate and offers a better response. More recent criticisms of explication by Boniolo and Eagle are shown to rest on misunderstandings of the nature of explication. It is concluded that explication is an appropriate methodology for formal philosophy.
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By
Wagner, Carl G.
3 Citations
The right interpretation of subjective probability is implicit in the theories of upper and lower odds, and upper and lower previsions, developed, respectively, by Cedric Smith (1961) and Peter Walley (1991). On this interpretation you are free to assign contingent events the probability 1 (and thus to employ conditionalization as a method of probability revision) without becoming vulnerable to a weak Dutch book.
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By
Collier, Nigel; Kawazoe, Ai; Jin, Lihua; Shigematsu, Mika; Dien, Dinh; Barrero, Roberto A.; Takeuchi, Koichi; Kawtrakul, Asanee
Show all (8)
26 Citations
A lack of surveillance system infrastructure in the AsiaPacific region is seen as hindering the global control of rapidly spreading infectious diseases such as the recent avian H5N1 epidemic. As part of improving surveillance in the region, the BioCaster project aims to develop a system based on text mining for automatically monitoring Internet news and other online sources in several regional languages. At the heart of the system is an application ontology which serves the dual purpose of enabling advanced searches on the mined facts and of allowing the system to make intelligent inferences for assessing the priority of events. However, it became clear early on in the project that existing classification schemes did not have the necessary language coverage or semantic specificity for our needs. In this article we present an overview of our needs and explore in detail the rationale and methods for developing a new conceptual structure and multilingual terminological resource that focusses on priority pathogens and the diseases they cause. The ontology is made freely available as an online database and downloadable OWL file.
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By
Ueffing, Nicola; Haffari, Gholamreza; Sarkar, Anoop
8 Citations
Statistical machine translation systems are usually trained on large amounts of bilingual text (used to learn a translation model), and also large amounts of monolingual text in the target language (used to train a language model). In this article we explore the use of semisupervised model adaptation methods for the effective use of monolingual data from the source language in order to improve translation quality. We propose several algorithms with this aim, and present the strengths and weaknesses of each one. We present detailed experimental evaluations on the French–English EuroParl data set and on data from the NIST Chinese–English largedata track. We show a significant improvement in translation quality on both tasks.
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By
Melnik, Nurit
The process of turning a “handwritten” headdriven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) theory into a working computational grammar requires complex considerations. Two leading platforms are available for implementing HPSG grammars: The LKB and TRALE. These platforms are based on different approaches, distinct in their underlying logics and implementation details. This paper adopts the perspective of a computational linguist whose goal is to implement an HPSG theory. It focuses on ten different dimensions, relevant to HPSG grammar implementation, and examines, compares, and evaluates the different means which the two approaches provide for implementing them. The paper concludes that the approaches occupy opposite positions on two axes: expressiveness and computational accessibility. The choice between them depends largely on the “style” of the “handwritten” grammar and the grammar writer’s preferences regarding those properties.
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By
Owczarzak, Karolina; Genabith, Josef; Way, Andy
10 Citations
In this paper we show how labelled dependencies produced by a LexicalFunctional Grammar parser can be used in Machine Translation evaluation. In contrast to most popular evaluation metrics based on surface string comparison, our dependencybased method does not unfairly penalize perfectly valid syntactic variations in the translation, shows less bias towards statistical models, and the addition of WordNet provides a way to accommodate lexical differences. In comparison with other metrics on a Chinese–English newswire text, our method obtains high correlation with human scores, both on a segment and system level.
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By
Knight, Kevin
7 Citations
We study automata for capturing the transformations in practical natural language processing (NLP) systems, especially those that translate between human languages. For several variations of finitestate string and tree transducers, we survey answers to formal questions about their expressiveness, modularity, teachability, and generalization. We conclude that no formal device yet captures everything that is desirable, and we point to future research.
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By
Piwek, Paul; Deemter, Kees
2 Citations
Recently, the view of Natural Language Generation (nlg) as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (csp) has seen something of a revival. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues that arise when nlg is viewed as a csp, and to introduce a novel application of constraintbased nlg, namely the Scripted Dialogue. Scripted Dialogue shares a number of crucial features with discourse, which make it possible to control the global properties of a computergenerated dialogue in the same way as those of a generated discourse. We pay particular attention to the use of soft constraints for enforcing global properties of text and dialogue. Because there has been little research into the formal properties of soft constraints in relation to generation, we start out with a theoretical exploration. We argue that, when multiple constraints are involved, it is important to define properly what is being optimised before proposing specific algorithms, and we argue that such definitions are often lacking in cspbased nlg. We show that it can be difficult (and sometimes even impossible) to guarantee satisfaction of global constraints by following local strategies. Based on these difficulties, we propose a novel approach to the generation of discourse and dialogue which combines csp solving with revision. Scripted Dialogue is used to illustrate this approach, which is compared with alternatives such as monitoring and estimation.
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By
Kuppusamy, Lakshmanan; Krishna, Shankara Narayanan; Raghavan, Rama; MartinVide, Carlos
Show all (4)
1 Citations
Contextual grammars were introduced by Marcus (Revue Roumaine de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees 14:525–1534, 1969) based on the basic phenomenon in descriptive linguistics, that of acceptance of a word by a context or conversely. In this paper we present some results which are of interest for the potential application of contextual grammars to natural languages. We introduce some classes of internal contextual grammars, viz. maximum depthfirst grammars, maximum lengthwise depthfirst grammars, and absorbing right context grammars. The study of these classes is motivated by their potential linguistic relevance for natural languages. In particular, we analyze these variants with respect to the properties of mildly contextsensitive languages. With this aim, we first show that the three basic noncontextfree constructions in natural languages can be realized upon using all such variants. Secondly, we state that the membership problem for the family of absorbing right context contextual languages is decidable by a polynomial time algorithm. Finally, we show that absorbing right context grammars produce semilinear languages only. Besides, we show that the nonmarked duplication language can be generated by absorbing right context grammars, which is a unique feature not present in any other variant of contextual grammars.
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By
Ranta, Aarne
8 Citations
The Grammatical Framework GF is a grammar formalism designed for multilingual grammars. A multilingual grammar has a shared representation, called abstract syntax, and a set of concrete syntaxes that map the abstract syntax to different languages. A GF grammar consists of modules, which can share code through inheritance, but which can also hide information to achieve division of labour between grammarians working on different modules. The goal is to make it possible for linguistically untrained programmers to write linguistically correct application grammars encoding the semantics of special domains. Such programmers can rely on resource grammars, written by linguists, which play the rôle of standard libraries. Application grammarians use resource grammars through abstract interfaces, and the type system of GF guarantees that grammaticality is preserved. The ongoing GF resource grammar project provides resource grammars for ten languages. In addition to their use as libraries, resource grammars serve as an experiment showing how much grammar code can be shared between different languages.
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By
Gerla, Giangiacomo
We define the notion of “potential existence” by starting from the fact that in multivalued logic the existential quantifier is interpreted by the least upper bound operator. Besides, we try to define in a general way how to pass from potential into actual existence.
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By
Tanaka, Yoshihito
It is known that for any subdirectly irreducible finite Heyting algebra A and any Heyting algebra B, A is embeddable into a quotient algebra of B, if and only if Jankov’s formula χ_{A} for A is refuted in B. In this paper, we present an infinitary extension of the above theorem given by Jankov. More precisely, for any cardinal number κ, we present Jankov’s theorem for homomorphisms preserving infinite meets and joins, a class of subdirectly irreducible complete κHeyting algebras and κinfinitary logic, where a κHeyting algebra is a Heyting algebra A with # ≥ κ and κinfinitary logic is the infinitary logic such that for any set Θ of formulas with # Θ ≥ κ, ∨Θ and ∧Θ are well defined formulas.
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By
Guerzoni, Elena; Sharvit, Yael
25 Citations
We observe that the facts pertaining to the acceptability of negative polarity items (henceforth, NPIs) in interrogative environments complex than previously noted. Since Klima [Klima, E. (1964). In J. Fodor & J. Katz (Eds.), The structure of language. PrenticeHall], it has been typically assumed that NPIs are grammatical in both matrix and embedded questions, however, on closer scrutiny it turns out that there are differences between root and embedded environments, and between question nucleus and whrestrictor. While NPIs are always licensed in the nucleus of root questions, their acceptability in the restrictor of whphrases and in the nucleus of any embedded question depends on the logical properties of the linguistic environment: its strength in terms of exhaustivity [Groenendijk, J., & Stokhof, M. (1984). Studies on the semantics of questions and the pragmatic answers. Amserdam (NL), PostDoctoral Dissertation. Heim, I. (1994). In R. Buchalla & A. Mittwoch (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th annual IATL conference and of the 1993 IATL workshop on discourse (pp. 128–144). Akademon, Jerusalem. Beck, S., & 16 Rullmann, H. (1999). Natural Language Semantics, 7, 249–298. Sharvit, Y (2002). Natural Language Semantics, 10, 97–123] and its monotonicity properties (in the sense of von Fintel [von Fintel, K. (1999). Journal of 19 Semantics, 16, 97148]).
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By
Gillies, Anthony S.
38 Citations
Orthodoxy has it that counterfactuals cannot be treated as strict conditionals. But there is a loophole: if the strictness is a function of context then maybe they can be so treated. I argue for a loophole analysis that treats ‘would’counterfactuals as strict conditionals that are duals to ‘might’ counterfactuals. Most of the work lies in getting straight about the interaction between context and semantic value. I treat it as a general feature of the dynamics of conversational score.
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By
Hindriks, Frank
22 Citations
According to the increasingly popular knowledge account, assertion is governed by the rule that speech acts of that kind require knowledge of their content. Timothy Williamson has argued that this knowledge rule is the constitutive rule of assertion. It is argued here that it is not the constitutive rule of assertion in any sense of the term, as it governs only some assertions rather than all of them. A (qualified) knowledge rule can in fact be derived from the traditional analysis of assertion according to which assertion is the linguistic expression of belief. Because it is more informative, this analysis provides a better point of departure for defending the knowledge account than Williamson’s view according to which the knowledge rule is part of the analysis of assertion.
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By
Gajewski, Jon Robert
38 Citations
The representation of NegRaising in the grammar is a matter of controversy. I provide evidence for representing NegRaising as a kind of presupposition associated with certain predicates by providing a detailed analysis of NPIlicensing in NegRaising contexts. Specific features of presupposition projection are used to explain the licensing of strict NPIs under NegRaising predicates. Discussion centers around the analysis of a licensing asymmetry noted in Horn (1971, Negative transportation: Unsafe at any speed? In CLS 7 (pp. 120–133)).Having provided this analysis, I go on to discuss its implications for the theory of NPIlicensing more generally. In particular, I discuss how the present proposal reflects on von Fintel’s (1999, Journal of Semantics, 16, 97–148) proposal to use Strawson downward entailment in the statement of NPIlicensing principles.
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By
Gehrke, M.; Priestley, H. A.
8 Citations
This paper is a study of duality in the absence of canonicity. Specifically it concerns double quasioperator algebras, a class of distributive lattice expansions in which, coordinatewise, each operation either preserves both join and meet or reverses them. A variety of DQAs need not be canonical, but as has been shown in a companion paper, it is canonical in a generalized sense and an algebraic correspondence theorem is available. For very many varieties, canonicity (as traditionally defined) and correspondence lead on to topological dualities in which the topological and correspondence components are quite separate. It is shown that, for DQAs, generalized canonicity is sufficient to yield, in a uniform way, topological dualities in the same style as those for canonical varieties. However topology and correspondence are no longer separable in the same way.
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By
Liberatore, Paolo
A consistency default is a propositional inference rule that asserts the consistency of a formula in its consequence. Consistency defaults allow for a straightforward encoding of domains in which it is explicitely known when something is possible. The logic of consistency defaults can be seen as a variant of cumulative default logic or as a generalization of justified default logic; it is also able to simulate Reiter default logic in the seminormal case. A semantical characterization of consistency defaults in terms of processes and in terms of a fixpoint equation is given, as well as a normal form.
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By
Costa, N. C. A.; Rodrigues, A. A. M.
13 Citations
In his thesis Para uma Teoria Geral dos Homomorfismos (1944), the Portuguese mathematician José Sebastião e Silva constructed an abstract or generalized Galois theory, that is intimately linked to F. Klein’s Erlangen Program and that foreshadows some notions and results of today’s model theory; an analogous theory was independently worked out by M. Krasner in 1938. In this paper, we present a version of the theory making use of tools which were not at Silva’s disposal. At the same time, we tried to keep in mind, so much as possible, the gist of his standpoint.
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By
Fulop, Sean A.
This paper extends previous research on learning procedures for classical categorial grammars and learnability of classes of such grammars. The grammatical framework here is updated to multimodal typelogical grammar, and a previously described learning procedure for these grammars is reviewed. The procedure acts on input samples of strings labeled by their semantic composition terms in the lambda calculus, and is able to learn lexical assignments of sets of categories to the vocabulary items using a broad range of permitted type logics. It is then shown that linguistically valuable subsets of the range of the algorithm are identifiable in the limit from termlabeled string data. The entire range of the algorithm is shown to be not a learnable class. It is informally argued that, given the right type logic, the learnable classes of grammars include members which generate natural languages, and thus that natural languages are learnable in this way.
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