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By
Langlais, Philippe; Foster, George; Lapalme, Guy
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3 Citations
This work is in the context of, a system thatwatches over the users as they type a translation andrepeatedly suggests completions for the text already entered.The users may either accept, modify, or ignore these suggestions. Wedescribe the design, implementation, and performance of aprototype which suggests completions of units of texts that arelonger than one word.
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By
Kehler, Andrew
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42 Citations
Despite the attention that various forms of ellipsis have received inthe literature, the conditions under which a representation of anutterance may serve as a suitable referent for interpreting subsequentelliptical forms remain poorly understood. This fundamental questionremains as a point of contention, particularly because there are datato support various conflicting approaches that attempt to characterizethese conditions within a single module of language processing. Weshow a previously unnoticed pattern in VPellipsis data with respectto the type of coherence relation extant between the antecedentand elided clauses. This pattern is explained by an account of howellipsis resolution processes interact with the inference processesunderlying the establishment of these relations. The analysis alsoexplains a similar yet distinct pattern in gapping constructions whichare not accounted for by purely syntactic approaches. Finally, wediscuss event reference and compare the resulting account to thedichotomy of types of anaphora posited by HanSag.
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By
Popowich, Fred; McFetridge, Paul; Turcato, Davide; Toole, Janine
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4 Citations
Traditional Machine Translation (MT) systems are designed to translate documents. In this paper we describe an MT system that translates the closed captions that accompany most North American television broadcasts. This domain has two identifying characteristics. First, the captions themselves have properties quite different from the type of textual input that many MT systems have been designed for. This is due to the fact that captions generally represent speech and hence contain many of the phenomena that characterize spoken language. Second, the operational characteristics of the closedcaption domain are also quite distinctive. Unlike most other translation domains, the translated captions are only one of several sources of information that are available to the user. In addition, the user has limited time to comprehend the translation since captions only appear on the screen for a few seconds. In this paper, we look at some of the theoretical and implementational challenges that these characteristics pose for MT. We present a fully automatic largescale multilingual MT system, ALTo. Our approach is based on Whitelock's Shake and Bake MT paradigm, which relies heavily on lexical resources. The system currently provides widecoverage translation from English to Spanish. In addition to discussing the design of the system, we also address the evaluation issues that are associated with this domain and report on our current performance.
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By
Agirre, Eneko; Arregi, Xabier; Artola, Xabier; Díaz De Ilarraza, Arantza; Sarasola, Kepa; Soroa, Aitor
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1 Citations
Interaction between humans and translation tools has been deeply studied in the field of machineaided translation. However, support tools for translation are often designed without the cooperation of human translators. The underlying idea is that human translators must adapt to the new technologies, and it seems that new computerised tools would not need to consider translators' practical use and experience. On the contrary, we argue that it is worthwhile and necessary to analyse the behaviour of translators in order to fit the tools to their needs. This paper presents an experiment to incorporate human translators' expertise into an already constructed lexical system. We focus on the design methodology that could be applied for the improvement of other similar tools.
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By
Méndez, J. M.; Salto, F.
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2 Citations
RoutleyMeyer type relational complete semantics are constructed for intuitionistic contractionless logic with reductio. Different negation completions of positive intuitionistic logic without contraction are treated in a systematical, unified and semantically complete setting.
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By
Patrick, Jon; Zhang, Jun; ArtolaZubillaga, Xabier
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1 Citations
An architecture for federating heterogeneousdictionary databases is described. It proposes acommon description language and query language toprovide for the exchange of information betweendatabases with different organizations, on differentplatforms and in different DBMSs. The common querylanguage has an SQL like structure. The first versionof the description language follows the TEI standardtag definitions for dictionaries with the expectationthat the description language will be expanded in thefuture. A practical implementation of the proposalsusing WWW technology for two multilingualdictionaries is described.
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By
Jøsang, Audun; Bondi, Viggo A.
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8 Citations
Judges and jurors must make decisions in an environment of ignoranceand uncertainty for example by hearing statements of possibly unreliable ordishonest witnesses, assessing possibly doubtful or irrelevantevidence, and enduring attempts by the opponents to manipulate thejudge's and the jurors' perceptions and feelings. Three importantaspects of decision making in this environment are the quantificationof sufficient proof, the weighing of pieces of evidence, and therelevancy of evidence. This paper proposes a mathematical frameworkfor dealing with the two first aspects, namely the quantification ofproof and weighing of evidence. Our approach is based on subjectivelogic, which is an extension of standard logic and probability theory,in which the notion of probability is extended by including degrees ofuncertainty. Subjective Logic is a framework for modelling humanreasoning and we show how it can be applied to legalreasoning.
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By
Burg, Jennifer; Boyle, Anne; Lang, SheauDong
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2 Citations
William Faulkner's nonchronological story tellingstyle has long been a challenge to critics and apuzzle to beginning literature students. ``A Rose forEmily,'' one of Faulkner's most frequently anthologizedstories, exemplifies the complexity of Faulkner'streatment of time. In this paper, we apply aconstraintbased problem solving method to an analysisof the chronology of ``A Rose for Emily.'' Constraintlogic programming is a declarative programminglanguage paradigm that solves problems by enforcingconstraints among variables. CLP's ability to sortnumeric variables that do not yet have definite valuesmakes it possible to sort the events of ``A Rose forEmily'' with only fragmented and relative timeinformation. In attempting to sort the events of thestory, we find an inconsistency in the temporalreferences scattered throughout the narrative. Afterremoving this inconsistency, we are able to compareour chronology with earlier ones and discuss thethematic relevance of Faulkner's nonlinear plots.
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By
Batens, Diderik; Meheus, Joke
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5 Citations
This paper describes the adaptive logic of compatibility and its dynamic proof theory. The results derive from insights in inconsistencyadaptive logic, but are themselves very simple and philosophically unobjectionable. In the absence of a positive test, dynamic proof theories lead, in the long run, to correct results and, in the short run, sometimes to final decisions but always to sensible estimates. The paper contains a new and natural kind of semantics for S5from which it follows that a specific subset of the standard worldsmodels is characteristic for S5.
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By
Gruber, Siegfried
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3 Citations
This article deals with using digitised maps inhistorical research and their possible contributionsto it. The use of cartographic data is especiallyuseful in research dealing with the spatialdistribution of various phenomena. The spatialdistribution of rural social strata is one suchphenomenon that has not yet received much attention.The case study of Pischelsdorf, an Austriansettlement, in the beginning of the nineteenth centuryshall serve as an example for such research.Pischelsdorf is situated in the Austrian province ofStyria, about 150 km from Vienna, and served as asmall centre for trade and handicraft for thesurrounding villages. This study is based on the landregister of 1822 which has been digitised.
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By
Demri, Stéphane; Gabbay, Dov
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1 Citations
This work is divided in two papers (Part I and Part II). In Part I, we introduced the class of Rarelogics for which the set of terms indexing the modal operators are hierarchized in two levels: the set of Boolean terms and the set of terms built upon the set of Boolean terms. By investigating different algebraic properties satisfied by the models of the Rarelogics, reductions for decidability were established by faithfully translating the Rarelogics into more standard modal logics (some of them contain the universal modal operator).
In Part II, we push forward the results from Part I. For Rarelogics with nominals (present at the level of formulae and at the level of modal expressions), we show that the constructions from Part I can be extended although it is technically more involved. We also characterize a class of standard modal logics for which the universal modal operator can be eliminated as far as satifiability is concerned. Although the previous results have a semantic flavour, we are also able to define proof systems for Rarelogics from existing proof systems for the corresponding standard modal logics. Last, but not least, decidability results for Rarelogics are established uniformly, in particular for information logics derived from rough set theory.
Since this paper is the continuation of Part I, we do not recall here the definitions of Part I although we refer to them.
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By
Paliwala, Abdul
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2 Citations
The Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems (JURIX) has, sinceits foundation in 1988, become an internationally renowned forumfor Law and Artificial Intelligence in theNetherlands. This paper is based onan intellectual review of the work of JURIX requested by theorganisation as part of its 10th anniversary in December 1997 andpresented as a keynote address at the 10th anniversary conference.It has been updated to include the following two conferences. Itapplauds the overall effort but also suggests some directions forfuture development and suggests in particular:
The breadth of research has been commendable, butthere is a need to move towards greater integration of systems andmigration to internet based systems.
Tools are likely to be improved in the next generationincluding the internet. Legal Knowledge Based Systems (LKBS) researchmay need to abandon fine boundaries between AI and other applications tools.
The commendable diversity of approaches to legalknowledge representation overlays concerns about the nature of lawand its translation in LKBS.
These issues of knowledge representation, theory, costand organisation of production can be best addressed by a return to acybernetic systems theory as a basis of analysis of relationships involved,and an understanding of the implications of culture change.
An awareness that traditional legal theories were notmeant for the information age. Theorisation about law needs to beinformed by a range of new theoretical approaches which approachlegal systems as cultural systems.
There is need to study the impact on legal cultures ofthe development of knowledge based systems, that is the impact ofjurimetricisation of society.
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By
Viganò, Luca
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In previous work we gave a new prooftheoretical method for establishing upperbounds on the space complexity of the provability problem of modal and other propositional nonclassical logics. Here we extend and refine these results to give an O(n log n)space decision procedure for the basic positive relevance logic B^{+}. We compute this upperbound by first giving a sound and complete, cutfree, labelled sequent system for B^{+}, and then establishing bounds on the application of the rules of this system.
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By
Finn, V.K.
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The article gives a short account of V.A. Smirnov’s scientific biography, including his work in Tomsk University in Siberia and in the Department of Logic of the Institute of Philosophy in Moscow.
By
Alechina, Natasha
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We consider a predicate logic L_{fd} where not all assignments of values to individual variables are possible. Some variables are functionally dependent on other variables. This makes sense if the models of logic are assumed to correspond to databases or states. We show that L_{fd} is undecidable but has a complete and sound sequent calculus formalisation.
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By
Stebletsova, Vera
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2 Citations
In this paper we introduced various classes of weakly associative relation algebras with polyadic composition operations. Among them is the class RWA^{∞} of representable weakly associative relation algebras with polyadic composition operations. Algebras of this class are relativized representable relation algebras augmented with an infinite set of operations of increasing arity which are generalizations of the binary relative composition. We show that RWA^{∞} is a canonical variety whose equational theory is decidable.
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By
Bimbó, Katalin
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5 Citations
Combinatory logic is known to be related to substructural logics. Algebraic considerations of the latter, in particular, algebraic considerations of two distinct implications (→, ←), led to the introduction of dual combinators in Dunn & Meyer 1997. Dual combinators are "mirror images" of the usual combinators and as such do not constitute an interesting subject of investigation by themselves. However, when combined with the usual combinators (e.g., in order to recover associativity in a sequent calculus), the whole system exhibits new features. A dual combinatory system with weak equality typically lacks the ChurchRosser property, and in general it is inconsistent. In many subsystems terms "unexpectedly" turn out to be weakly equivalent. The paper is a preliminary attempt to investigate some of these issues, as well as, briefly compare function application in symmetric λcalculus (cf. Barbanera & Berardi 1996) and dual combinatory logic.
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By
Karpenko, Alexander S.
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We discuss Smirnov’s problem of finding a common background for classifying implicational logics. We formulate and solve the problem of extending, in an appropriate way, an implicational fragment H_{→} of the intuitionistic propositional logic to an implicational fragment TV_{→} of the classical propositional logic. As a result we obtain logical constructions having the form of Boolean lattices whose elements are implicational logics. In this way, whole classes of new logics can be obtained. We also consider the transition from implicational logics to full logics. On the base of the lattices constructed, we formulate the main classification principles for propositional logics.
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By
Schotch, Peter K.
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1 Citations
This essay attempts to implement epistemic logic through a nonclassical inference relation. Given that relation, an account of '(the individual) a knows that A' is constructed as an unfamiliar nonnormal modal logic. One advantage to this approach is a new analysis of the skeptical argument.
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By
van Eijck, Jan
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6 Citations
We explore some logics of change, focusing on commands to change the world in such a way that certain elementary propositions become true or false. This investigation starts out from the following two simplifying assumptions: (1) the world is a collection of facts (Wittgenstein), and (2), the world can be changed by changing elementary facts (Marx). These assumptions allow us to study the logic of imperatives in the simplest possible setting.
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By
Lavendhomme, René; Lucas, Thierry
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3 Citations
We investigate sequent calculi for the weak modal (propositional) system reduced to the equivalence rule and extensions of it up to the full Kripke system containing monotonicity, conjunction and necessitation rules. The calculi have cut elimination and we concentrate on the inversion of rules to give in each case an effective procedure which for every sequent either furnishes a proof or a finite countermodel of it. Applications to the cardinality of countermodels, the inversion of rules and the derivability of Löb rules are given.
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By
Green, Mitchell S.
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20 Citations
Illocutionary force and semantic content are widelyheld to occupy utterly different categories in atleast two ways: (1) any expression serving as anindicator of illocutionary force must be withoutsemantic content, and (2) no such expression canembed. A refined account of the force/contentdistinction is offered here that (a) does theexplanatory work that the standard distinction does,while, in accounting for the behavior of a range ofparenthetical expressions, (b) shows neither (1) nor(2) to be compulsory. The refined account alsomotivates a development of the ``scorekeeping model'' ofconversation, helps to isolate a distinction betweenillocutionary force and illocutionary commitment, andreveals one precise respect in which meaning is onlyexplicable in terms of use.
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By
Lepage, François
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1 Citations
This paper has four parts. In the first part, I present Leśniewski's protothetics and the complete system provided for that logic by Henkin. The second part presents a generalized notion of partial functions in propositional type theory. In the third part, these partial functions are used to define partial interpretations for protothetics. Finally, I present in the fourth part a complete system for partial protothetics. Completeness is proved by Henkin's method [4] using saturated sets instead of maximally saturated sets. This technique provides a canonical representation of a partial semantic space and it is suggested that this space can be interpreted as an epistemic state of a nonomniscient agent.
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By
Lespérance, Yves; Levesque, Hector J.; Lin, Fangzhen; Scherl, Richard B.
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15 Citations
Most agents can acquire information about their environments as they operate. A good plan for such an agent is one that not only achieves the goal, but is also executable, i.e., ensures that the agent has enough information at every step to know what to do next. In this paper, we present a formal account of what it means for an agent to know how to execute a plan and to be able to achieve a goal. Such a theory is a prerequisite for producing specifications of planners for agents that can acquire information at run time. It is also essential to account for cooperation among agents. Our account is more general than previous proposals, correctly handles programs containing loops, and incorporates a solution to the frame problem. It can also be used to prove programs containing sensing actions correct.
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By
Sorensen, Roy A.
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1 Citations
Poindexter points and asserts `That is Clinton'. But it is vague as to whether he pointed at Clinton or pointed at the more salient man, Gore. Since the vagueness only occurs at the level of reference fixing, the content of the identity proposition is precise. Indeed, it is either a necessary truth or a necessary falsehood. Since Poindexter's utterance has a hidden truth value by virtue of vagueness, it increases the plausibility of epistemicism. Epistemicism says that vague statements have hidden truth values. If a precise statement can have a hidden truth value conferred indirectly by vaguesness, then a vague statement can have a hidden truth value directly by its own vagueness.
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By
Farmer, William M.; Guttman, Joshua D.
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5 Citations
Partial functions can be easily represented in set theory as certain sets of ordered pairs. However, classical set theory provides no special machinery for reasoning about partial functions. For instance, there is no direct way of handling the application of a function to an argument outside its domain as in partial logic. There is also no utilization of lambdanotation and sorts or types as in type theory. This paper introduces a version of vonNeumannBernaysGödel set theory for reasoning about sets, proper classes, and partial functions represented as classes of ordered pairs. The underlying logic of the system is a partial firstorder logic, so classvalued terms may be nondenoting. Functions can be specified using lambdanotation, and reasoning about the application of functions to arguments is facilitated using sorts similar to those employed in the logic of the IMPS Interactive Mathematical Proof System. The set theory is intended to serve as a foundation for mechanized mathematics systems.
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By
van der Hoek, Wiebe; van Linder, Bernd; Meyer, JohnJules
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5 Citations
We demonstrate ways to incorporate nondeterminism in a system designed to formalize the reasoning of agents concerning their abilities and the results of the actions that they may perform. We distinguish between two kinds of nondeterministic choice operators: one that expresses an internal choice, in which the agent decides what action to take, and one that expresses an external choice, which cannot be influenced by the agent. The presence of abilities in our system is the reason why the usual approaches towards nondeterminism cannot be used here. The semantics that we define for nondeterministic actions is based on the idea that composite actions are unravelled in the strings of atomic actions and tests that constitute them. The main notions used in defining this semantics are finite computation sequences and finite computation runs of actions. The results that we obtain meet our intuitions regarding events and abilities in the presence of nondeterminism.
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By
Dunn, J. Michael
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37 Citations
This paper explores allowing truth value assignments to be undetermined or "partial" (no truth values) and overdetermined or "inconsistent" (both truth values), thus returning to an investigation of the fourvalued semantics that I initiated in the sixties. I examine some natural consequence relations and show how they are related to existing logics, including Łukasiewicz's threevalued logic, Kleene's threevalued logic, Anderson and Belnap's (firstdegree) relevant entailments, Priest's "Logic of Paradox", and the firstdegree fragment of the DunnMcCall system "Rmingle". None of these systems have nested implications, and I investigate twelve natural extensions containing nested implications, all of which can be viewed as coming from natural variations on Kripke's semantics for intuitionistic logic. Many of these logics exist antecedently in the literature, in particular Nelson's "constructible falsity".
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By
Carl, Michael; Pease, Cathrine; Iomdin, Leonid L.; Streiter, Oliver
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5 Citations
This paper reports on a series of experiments which aim at integratingExamplebased Machine Translation and Translation Memories with Rulebased Machine Translation. We start by examining the potentials of each MT paradigm in terms of systeminternal and systemexternal parameters. Whereas the systemexternal parameters include the expected translation quality and translation coverage, systeminternal parameters relate to adaptability and recall of translation units. We prefer a dynamic linkage of different MT paradigms where the sharing of labor amongst the modules involved, such as segmentation andsegment translation, is decided dynamically during runtime. We motivatethe communication of linguistically rich data structures between thedifferent components in a hybrid system and show that this linkage leadsto better translation results and improves the customization possibilitiesof the system.
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By
Hutchins, John; Lovtskii, Evgenii
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3 Citations
This article presents translations of works by Troyanskii describing his 1933 proposals for a mechanical translation device, some later elaborations of the linguistic and technical features, and also translated extracts from commentaries made in 1959 by the Russian editors of his papers. The paper includes extensive assessments of Troyanskii's proposals, and places his work in the context of his time and in the light of subsequent research in machine translation.
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By
Mares, Edwin D.
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RGLis a version of the modal logic GLbased on the relevant logic R. It is shown that the class of RKframes that verify all theorems of RGLalso verify a scheme that we call (!). If RGLhas (!) as a theorem, however, it is not a relevant logic. I go on to show that not all instances of (!) are theorems of RGL, hence this logic is not complete over any class of RKframes.
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By
Spaeth, Donald A.; Cameron, Sonja
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This article presents an overview of developments incomputeraided history teaching in higher education inthe UK and the US, which have focused primarily onproviding students with access to primary sources inorder to enhance their understanding of historicalmethods and content. From an initial emphasis onresearch training for postgraduates, which taughtquantitative methods, or the use of drillstylequestionandanswer programs, advances in hardwarecapacity and software provision have led to morevaried methods of analysis. Computerassisted learninglends itself particularly to the growing emphasis onstudents' use of primary sources, as more texts becomeavailable in electronic format on CDROM or the WorldWide Web. Hypermedia can provide a unique learningenvironment in which students are exposed to differentgenres of sources such as images, texts and numericaldata, encouraging them to discover interconnectionsand complexities, while learning at their own pace.Students can be expected to develop critical skills bycomparing primary sources and forming their ownhistorical interpretations. The various problems andmethods of locating and assessing relevant informationin cyberspace also foster critical thinking and aspirit of investigation. A computerassisted coursetaught in Glasgow showed that students value the easeof access to relevant source materials offered bycustomised resource packs, which left them with moretime to evaluate their contents critically.
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By
Channon, Geoffrey
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The article describes how the British Government seesthe electronic campus as a ``quick fix'' for deliveringits idea of the learning society and mass higher (andfurther) education. It suggests that this solutionposes a number of major difficulties, especially forthe humanities. The issues are located in a globalcontext in which it is argued that socalled``megauniversities'' will come to dominate courseproduction and distribution. This development willhave profound implications for notions ofinstitutional autonomy and the autonomy of individualteachers, and may undermine academic pluralism. Thearticle concludes by arguing that, in the humanities,interventions are needed to secure an appropriate meldbetween the existing ``facetoface'' methods ofteaching and learning, and the new technology.
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By
Freund, Max A.
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1 Citations
A formal logical system for sortal quantifiers, sortal identity and (second order) quantification over sortal concepts is formulated. The absolute consistency of the system is proved. A completeness proof for the system is also constructed. This proof is relative to a concept of logical validity provided by a semantics, which assumes as its philosophical background an approach to sortals from a modern form of conceptualism.
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By
Rybakov, V. V.; Terziler, M.; Gencer, C.
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1 Citations
We study quasicharacterizing inference rules (this notion was introduced into consideration by A. Citkin (1977). The main result of our paper is a complete description of all selfadmissible quasicharacterizing inference rules. It is shown that a quasicharacterizing rule is selfadmissible iff the frame of the algebra generating this rule is not rigid. We also prove that selfadmissible rules are always admissible in canonical, in a sense, logics S4 or IPC regarding the type of algebra generating rules.
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By
Fraser, Michael
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2 Citations
This paper discusses selected aspects of the work ofthe CTI Centre for Textual Studies, a Centre which hasits roots in a 1984 initiative and ceased to operatein 1999. The work of the Centre was grounded inhumanities computing, a subject area which itself hasdeveloped over time. The article compares earlierobservations made by Joseph Raben and Susan Hockeyabout the integration of resources within humanitiesteaching and learning, to current realities. Its focusis the development of access to distributed resources,beginning with an interface between the early PC andthe mainframe and ending with a vision of a humanitiesportal to distributed resources.
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By
Ess, Charles
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5 Citations
Webaccessible conferencing softwareand ``conversational ethics'' drawn from Habermas andRawls have successfully brought together onlineparticipants separated by geography and viewpoint, andoccasionally resulted in consensus regarding otherwisedivisive issues such as abortion. The author describessuccesses, limitations, and costs of incorporatingthese technologies and discourse ethics in a religiousstudies class. Results are striking, but thepedagogical benefits involve technical risks and highlabor and time costs. This experience, coupled withrecent research, suggests that electronic pedagogies,like other teaching strategies, work for some, but notall students: this argues that we take up electronicteaching as one approach among many.
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By
Demri, Stéphane; Gabbay, Dov
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1 Citations
This work is divided in two papers (Part I and Part II). In Part I, we study a class of polymodal logics (herein called the class of "Rarelogics") for which the set of terms indexing the modal operators are hierarchized in two levels: the set of Boolean terms and the set of terms built upon the set of Boolean terms. By investigating different algebraic properties satisfied by the models of the Rarelogics, reductions for decidability are established by faithfully translating the Rarelogics into more standard modal logics. The main idea of the translation consists in eliminating the Boolean terms by taking advantage of the components construction and in using various properties of the classes of semilattices involved in the semantics. The novelty of our approach allows us to prove new decidability results (presented in Part II), in particular for information logics derived from rough set theory and we open new perspectives to define proof systems for such logics (presented also in Part II).
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By
Hardwick, Lorna
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1 Citations
The article offers a case study of the relationshipbetween current developments in Classical Studies andthe impact of computing and IT. The first sectionsummarises the main features of the Classical Studiesenvironment, especially the deep seated changes whichhave been taking place. These changes are then relatedto specific initiatives in Research, Teaching andLearning. The discussion is framed by a statement ofmicrocriteria for the evaluation of new developmentsand by reference to the macroclimate of debate aboutthe nature of cyberspace, especially the dichotomybetween conceptions of postmodern diversity and ofEnlightenment images of rational structures. It issuggested that these debates mirror those with whichthe discipline itself engages.
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By
Paoli, Francesco
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2 Citations
We investigate the class of strongly distributive pregroups, a common abstraction of MValgebras and Abelian lgroups which was introduced by E.Casari. The main result of the paper is a representation theorem which yields both Chang's representation of MValgebras and Clifford's representation of Abelian lgroups as immediate corollaries.
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By
Bierman, G. M.; de Paiva, V. C. V.
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35 Citations
In this paper we consider an intuitionistic variant of the modal logic S4 (which we call IS4). The novelty of this paper is that we place particular importance on the natural deduction formulation of IS4— our formulation has several important metatheoretic properties. In addition, we study models of IS4— not in the framework of Kirpke semantics, but in the more general framework of category theory. This allows not only a more abstract definition of a whole class of models but also a means of modelling proofs as well as provability.
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By
Stanley, Jason
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198 Citations
In this paper, I defend the thesis that alleffects of extralinguistic context on the truthconditions of an assertion are traceable to elements in the actual syntactic structure of the sentence uttered. In the first section, I develop the thesis in detail, and discuss its implications for the relation between semantics and pragmatics. The next two sections are devoted to apparent counterexamples. In the second section, I argue that there are no convincing examples of true nonsentential assertions. In the third section, I argue that there are no convincing examples of what John Perry has called ‘unarticulated constituents’. I conclude by drawing some consequences of my arguments for appeals to contextdependence in the resolution of problems in epistemology and philosophical logic.
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By
Abad, M.; Díaz Varela, J.P.; Rueda, L.A.; Suardíaz, A.M.
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1 Citations
This paper is devoted to the study of some subvarieties of the variety Qof QHeyting algebras, that is, Heyting algebras with a quantifier. In particular, a deeper investigation is carried out in the variety Q_{3} of threevalued QHeyting algebras to show that the structure of the lattice of subvarieties of Qis far more complicated that the lattice of subvarieties of Heyting algebras. We determine the simple and subdirectly irreducible algebras in Q_{3} and we construct the lattice of subvarieties Λ(Q_{3}) of the variety Q_{3}.
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By
Kurucz, Ágnes
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16 Citations
We consider arrow logics (i.e., propositional multimodal logics having three  a dyadic, a monadic, and a constant  modal operators) augmented with various kinds of infinite counting modalities, such as 'much more', 'of good quantity', 'many times'. It is shown that the addition of these modal operators to weakly associative arrow logic results in finitely axiomatizable and decidable logics, which fail to have the finite base property.
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By
Coniglio, Marcelo E.; Miraglia, Francisco
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6 Citations
The relationship between qspaces (c.f. [9]) and quantum spaces (c.f. [5]) is studied, proving that both models coincide in the case of Spec A, the spectrum of a noncommutative C*algebra A. It is shown that a sober T_{1} quantum space is a classical topological space. This difficulty is circumvented through a new definition of point in a quantale. With this new definition, it is proved that Lid A has enough points. A notion of orthogonality in quantum spaces is introduced, which permits us to express the usual topological properties of separation. The notion of stalks of sheaves over quantales is introduced, and some results in categorial model theory are obtained.
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By
Krivtsov, Victor N.
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4 Citations
This work is a sequel to our [16]. It is shown how Theorem 4 of [16], dealing with the translatability of HA(Heyting's arithmetic) into negationless arithmetic NA, can be extended to the case of intuitionistic arithmetic in higher types.
By
Shimura, Tatsuya
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1 Citations
We generalize the incompleteness proof of the modal predicate logic QS4+ □⋄p ⊃ ⋄□p + BF described in HughesCresswell [6]. As a corollary, we show that, for every subframe logic Lcontaining S4, Kripke completeness of QL+ BF implies the finite embedding property of L.
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Wolter, Frank
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In this paper we investigate first order common knowledge logics; i.e., modal epistemic logics based on first order logic with common knowledge operators. It is shown that even rather weak fragments of first order common knowledge logics are not recursively axiomatizable. This applies, for example, to fragments which allow to reason about names only; that is to say, fragments the first order part of which is based on constant symbols and the equality symbol only. Then formal properties of "quantifying into" epistemic contexts are investigated. The results are illustrated by means of epistemic representations of Nash Equilibria for finite games with mixed strategies.
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Seligman, Mark
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This paper sketches research in nine areas related to spoken language translation: interactive disambiguation (two demonstrations of highly interactive, broadcoverage speech translation are reported); system architecture; data structures; the interface between speech recognition and analysis; the use of natural pauses for segmenting utterances; examplebased machine translation; dialogue acts; the tracking of lexical cooccurrences; and the resolution of translation mismatches.
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Tillimann, Christoph; Vogel, Stephan; Ney, Hermann; Sawaf, Hassan
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In this paper, we describe a first version of a system for statisticaltranslation and present experimental results. The statistical translationapproach uses two types of information: a translation model and a languagemodel. The language model used is a standard bigram model. The translationmodel is decomposed into lexical and alignment models. After presenting the details of the alignment model, we describe the search problem and present a dynamic programmingbased solution for the special case of monotone alignments.So far, the system has been tested on two limiteddomain tasks for which abilingual corpus is available: the EuTrans traveller task (Spanish–English,500word vocabulary) and the Verbmobil task (German–English, 3000wordvocabulary). We present experimental results on these tasks. In addition to the translation of text input, we also address the problem of speech translation and suitable integration of the acoustic recognition process and the translation process.
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Alshawi, Hiyan; Bangalore, Srinivas; Douglas, Shona
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This article presents statistical language translation models,called “dependency transduction models”, based on collectionsof “head transducers”. Head transducers are middleout finitestate transducers which translate a head word in a source stringinto its corresponding head in the target language, and furthertranslate sequences of dependents of the source head into sequencesof dependents of the target head. The models are intended to capturethe lexical sensitivity of direct statistical translation models,while at the same time taking account of the hierarchical phrasalstructure of language. Head transducers are suitable for directrecursive lexical translation, and are simple enough to be trainedfully automatically. We present a method for fully automatictraining of dependency transduction models for which the only inputis transcribed and translated speech utterances. The method has beenapplied to create English–Spanish and English–Japanese translationmodels for speech translation applications. The dependencytransduction model gives around 75% accuracy for an English–Spanishtranslation task (using a simple string editdistance measure) and70% for an English–Japanese translation task. Enhanced with targetngrams and a casebased component, English–Spanish accuracy is over76%; for English–Japanese it is 73% for transcribed speech, and60% for translation from recognition word lattices.
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Levin, Lori; Lavie, Alon; Woszczyna, Monika; Gates, Donna; Gavaldá, Marsal; Koll, Detlef; Waibel, Alex
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The JanusIII system translates spoken languages in limiteddomains. The current research focus is on expanding beyond tasksinvolving a single limited semantic domain to significantly broaderand richer domains. To achieve this goal, The MT components of oursystem have been engineered to build and manipulate multidomain parselattices that are based on modular grammars for multiple semanticdomains. This approach yields solutions to several problems includingmultidomain disambiguation, segmentation of spoken utterances intosentence units, modularity of system design, and reuse of earliersystems with incompatible output.
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Stede, Manfred; Schmitz, Birte
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2 Citations
Spoken language, especially spoken German, is rich in particles thatdo not contribute to the propositional content of utterances, but playimportant roles in steering the flow of the dialogue and inconveying various attitudes and expectations of the speaker. Languagesdiffer widely in their conventions on particle usage, and thereforethese words pose significant problems for translation. As a solution,we propose an inventory of “discourse functions” that characterizethe pragmatic impact of particles. These functions are to be assignedto particles in the analysis phase, so that the translation step canuse the abstract information to decide on the best way of renderingthe same effect in the targetlanguage utterance.
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Frederking, Robert; Rudnicky, Alexander; Hogan, Christopher; Lenzo, Kevin
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The Diplomat rapiddeployment speechtranslation systemis intended to allow naï ve users to communicate across a languagebarrier, without strong domain restrictions, despite the errorpronenature of current speech and translation technologies. In addition,it should be deployable for new languages an order of magnitude morequickly than traditional technologies. Achieving this ambitious setof goals depends in large part on allowing the users to correct recognition and translation errors interactively. We present the MultiEngine Machine Translation (MEMT) architecture, describing how it is well suited for such an application. We then discuss ourapproaches to rapiddeployment speech recognition and synthesis.Finally we describe our incorporation of interactive error correctionthroughout the system design. We have already developed workingbidirectional Croatian ⇆ English and Spanish⇆ English systems, and have Haitian Creole ⇆ English and Korean ⇆ English versions under development.
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Amengual, Juan Carlos; Castaño, Asunción; Castellanos, Antonio; Jiménez, Victor M.; Llorens, David; Marzal, Andrés; Prat, Federico; Vilar, Juan Miguel; Benedi, José Miguel; Casacuberta, Francisco; Pastor, Moisés; Vidal, Enrique
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20 Citations
The EuTransAll project aims at using examplebased approaches for the automatic development of Machine Translation systems accepting text and speech input for limiteddomain applications. During the first phase of the project, a speechtranslation system that is based on the use of automatically learned subsequential transducers has been built. This paper contains a detailed and mostly selfcontained overview of the transducerlearning algorithms and system architecture, along with a new approach for using categories representing words or short phrases in both input and output languages. Experimental results using this approach are reported for a task involving the recognition and translation of sentences in the hotelreceptioncommunication domain, with a vocabulary of 683 words in Spanish. Atranslation worderror rate of 1.97% is achieved in realtimefactor 2.7 on a Personal Computer.
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Klunder, Barbara
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The notion of a pseudointerior algebra was introduced by Blok and Pigozzi in [BPIV]. We continue here our studies begun in [BK]. As a consequence of the representation theorem for pseudointerior algebras given in [BK] we prove that the variety of all pseudointerior algebras is generated by its finite members. This result together with Jónsson's Theorem for congruence distributive varieties provides a useful technique in the study of the lattice of varieties of pseudointerior algebras.
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Gil, Àngel J.; Rebagliato, Jordi
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3 Citations
In this paper we show that, in Gentzen systems, there is a close relation between two of the main characters in algebraic logic and proof theory respectively: protoalgebraicity and the cut rule. We give certain conditions under which a Gentzen system is protoalgebraic if and only if it possesses the cut rule. To obtain this equivalence, we limit our discussion to what we call regular sequent calculi, which are those comprising some of the structural rules and some logical rules, in a sense we make precise. We note that this restricted set of rules includes all the usual rules in the literature. We also stress the difference between the case of twosided sequents and the case of manysided sequents, in which more conditions are needed.
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Adillon, Romà J.; Verdú, Ventura
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4 Citations
In this paper we prove the equivalence between the Gentzen system G_{LJ*\c}, obtained by deleting the contraction rule from the sequent calculus LJ* (which is a redundant version of LJ), the deductive system IPC*\c and the equational system associated with the variety RL of residuated lattices. This means that the variety RL is the equivalent algebraic semantics for both systems G_{LJ*\c} in the sense of [18] and [4], respectively. The equivalence between G_{LJ*\c} and IPC*\c is a strengthening of a result obtained by H. Ono and Y. Komori [14, Corollary 2.8.1] and the equivalence between G_{LJ*\c} and the equational system associated with the variety RL of residuated lattices is a strengthening of a result obtained by P.M. Idziak [13, Theorem 1].
An axiomatization of the restriction of IPC*\c to the formulas whose main connective is the implication connective is obtained by using an interpretation of G_{LJ*\c} in IPC*\c.
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García Olmedo, Francisco M.; Rodríguez Salas, Antonio J.
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8 Citations
In the paper we obtain a new characterization of the BCKalgebras which are subdirect product of BCKchains. We give an axiomatic algebraizable extension of the BCKcalculus, by means of a recursively enumerable set of axioms, such that its equivalent algebraic semantics is definitionally equivalent to the quasivariety of BCKalgebras generated by the BCKchains. We propose the concept of "linearization of a system" and we give some examples.
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Hoogland, Eva
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In this paper it will be shown that the Beth definability property corresponds to surjectiveness of epimorphisms in abstract algebraic logic. This generalizes a result by I. Németi (cf. [11, Theorem 5.6.10]). Moreover, an equally general characterization of the weak Beth property will be given. This gives a solution to Problem 14 in [20]. Finally, the characterization of the projective Beth property for varieties of modal algebras by L. Maksimova (see [15]) will be shown to hold for the larger class of semantically algebraizable logics.
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Lewin, R.A.; Mikenberg, I.F.; Schwarze, M.G.
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1 Citations
We study the matrices, reduced matrices and algebras associated to the systems SAℒ_{T} of structural annotated logics. In previous papers, these systems were proven algebraizable in the finitary case and the class of matrices analyzed here was proven to be a matrix semantics for them.
We prove that the equivalent algebraic semantics associated with the systems SAℒ_{T} are proper quasivarieties, we describe the reduced matrices, the subdirectly irreducible algebras and we give a general decomposition theorem. As a consequence we obtain a decision procedure for these logics.
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Boullier, Pierre
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Contextfree grammars and cubic parse time are so related in people's minds that they often think that parsing any extension of contextfree grammars must need some extra time. Of course, this is not necessarily true and this paper presents a generalization of contextfree grammars which nonetheless still has a cubic parse time complexity. This extension, which defines a subclass of contextsensitive languages, has both a theoretical and a practical interest. The class of languages defined by these grammars is closed under both intersection and complement (in fact this class contains both the intersection and the complement of contextfree languages). Moreover, these languages belong to an extension of mildly contextsensitive languages in which the constant growth property is relaxed and which can thus potentially be used in natural language processing.
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Alonso Pardo, Miguel Á.; Nederhof, MarkJan; Villemonte de la Clergerie, Eric
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We propose a modular design of tabular parsing algorithms for treeadjoining languages. The modularity is made possible by a separation of the parsing strategy from the mechanism of tabulation. The parsing strategy is expressed in terms of the construction of a nondeterministic automaton from a grammar; three distinct types of automaton will be discussed. The mechanism of tabulation leads to the simulation of these nondeterministic automata in polynomial time, independently of the parsing strategy. The proposed application of this work is the design of efficient parsing algorithms for treeadjoining grammars and related formalisms.
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Koller, Alexander; Niehren, Joachim; Striegnitz, Kristina
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Type and sort conflicts in semantics are usually resolved by a process of reinterpretation, which introduces an operator into the semantic representation. We elaborate on the foundations of a recent approach to reinterpretation within a framework for semantic underspecification. In this approach, relaxed underspecified semantic representations are inferred from the syntactic structure, leaving space for subsequent addition of reinterpretation operators. Unfortunately, a structural danger of overgeneration is inherent to the relaxation of underspecified semantic representations. We identify the problem and distinguish structural properties that avoid it. We furthermore develop techniques for proving these properties and apply them to prove the safety of relaxation in a prototypical syntax/semantics interface. In doing so, we present some novel properties of tree descriptions in the constraint language over lambda structures (CLLS).
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Frank, Robert; Kulick, Seth; VijayShanker, K.
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In this paper we argue for a reconceptualization of the Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) formalism, in which the elementary structures are collections of ccommand relations, and the combinatory operation is substitution. We show how the formalism we sketch resolves a number of problems for TAG that have been identified in the literature. Additionally, we demonstrate that our proposal is preferable to other previously proposed extensions to TAG, for example Dtree grammars (Rambow et al., 1995), in that it preserves many of the linguistically desirable aspects of TAG's restrictiveness, specifically concerning the derivation of locality constraints on unbounded dependencies.
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Kappes, Martin
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In this paper, we introduce grammar formalisms called multibracketed contextual and multibracketed contextual rewriting grammars. These formalisms possess an induced Dyckstructure to control the derivation process and to provide phrasestructure trees. The generative capacity of these classes is compared to Chomsky grammars and to tree adjoining grammars with and without local constraints. It will be shown that multibracketed contextual rewriting grammars cover the basic natural language constructions duplication, multiple agreement and crossserial dependencies.
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Kolb, HansPeter; Mönnich, Uwe; Morawietz, Frank
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3 Citations
The main result of this paper is a description of crossserial dependencies equivalently in terms of (a) regular tree languages (to express the recursive properties) and regular string languages (to establish the intended linguistic relations) and (b) transductions definable in monadic secondorder (MSO) logic which are defined on a domain of finite trees that is characterized as the model set of a closed MSO formula. In fact, we shall not deal directly with the two types of regular language families and MSO definable structures, but shall instead consider implementation in the form of finitestate (tree) automata to emphasize the effective nature of our approach.
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Lecomte, Alain
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In this paper, we aim at giving a logical account of the representationalist view of minimalist grammars by referring to the notion of ProofNet in Linear Logic. We propose, at the same time, a hybrid logic which mixes one logic (Lambek calculus) for building up elementary proofs and another one for combining the proofs so obtained. Because the first logic is noncommutative and the second one is commutative, this brings us a way to combine commutativity and noncommutativity in the same framework. The dynamic of cutelimination in proofnets is used to formalise the moveoperation. Otherwise, we advocate a proofnet formalism which allows us to consider formulae as nodes to which it is possible to assign weights which determine the final phonological interpretation.
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By
Penn, Gerald
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This paper identifies a misconception about the algebraic structure underlying the view of transitive closure as a matrix multiplication problem. This is the mathematical basis of the technique that has been used for the efficient compilation of partially ordered sets of objects or types in programming languages for the past ten years. It also shows that the correct structure, a closed semiring, can also be extended to objects or type signatures that are augmented with attributes, constraints on the multiple inheritance of those attributes, and/or constraints on what types of values the attributes can take. As a specific example in the realm of linguistic knowledge representation, it is shown that every operation necessary for computing the closure of attributed type signature specifications in the logic of typed feature structures (Carpenter, 1992), the logical underpinning of the linguistic theory, Headdriven Phrase Structure Grammar (Pollard and Sag, 1987, 1994), can be reduced to matrix arithmetic using this construction. Other practical consequences of using the correct structure, such as the algorithmic complexity of multiplication and closure operations, are also discussed.
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Cortes, Corinna; Mohri, Mehryar
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4 Citations
We introduce the definition of language recognition with weighted automata, a generalization of the classical definition of recognition with unweighted acceptors. We show that, with our definition of recognition, weighted automata can be used to recognize a class of languages that strictly includes regular languages. The class of languages accepted depends on the weight set which has the algebraic structure of a semiring. We give a generic linear time algorithm for recognition with weighted automata and describe examples with various weight sets illustrating the recognition of several classes of contextfree languages. We prove, in particular, that the class of languages equivalent to the language of palindromes can be recognized by weighted automata over the (+,ċ)semiring, and that the class of languages equivalent to the Dyck language of first order D_{1}^{'*}can be recognized by weighted automata over the real tropical semiring. We also prove that weighted automata over the real tropical semiring can be used to recognize regular expressions.
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