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By
Güngördü, Zealal; Oflazer, Kemal
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3 Citations
This paper describes our work on parsing Turkish using thelexicalfunctional grammar formalism [11]. This work represents the first effort for widecoverage syntactic parsing of Turkish. Our implementation is based on Tomita's parser developed at Carnegie Mellon University Center for Machine Translation. The grammar covers a substantial subset of Turkish including structurally simple and complex sentences, and deals with a reasonable amount of word order freeness. The complex agglutinative morphology of Turkish lexical structures is handled using a separate twolevel morphological analyzer, which has been incorporated into the syntactic parser. After a discussion of the key relevant issues regarding Turkish grammar, we discuss aspects of our system and present results from our implementation. Our initial results suggest that our system can parse about 82% of the sentences directly and almost all the remaining with very minor preediting.
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By
Berry, Michael W.; Young, Paul G.
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9 Citations
In this paper, a method for indexing crosslanguage databases for conceptual query matching is presented. Two languages (Greek and English) are combined by appending a small portion of documents from one language to the identical documents in the other language. The proposed merging strategy duplicates less than 7% of the entire database (made up of different translations of the Gospels). Previous strategies duplicated up to 34% of the initial database in order to perform the merger. The proposed method retrieves a larger number of relevant documents for both languages with higher cosine rankings when Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is employed. Using the proposed merge strategies, LSI is shown to be effective in retrieving documents from either language (Greek or English) without requiring any translation of a user's query. An effective Bible search product needs to allow the use of natural language for searching (queries). LSI enables the user to form queries with using natural expressions in the user's own native language. The merging strategy proposed in this study enables LSI to retrieve relevant documents effectively using a minimum of the database in a foreign language.
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By
Watanabe, Hideo
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2 Citations
This paper proposes a new type of transfer mechanism, called Rule Combination Transfer (or RCT), that produces an output structure by nondestructively combining target parts of translation rules, each of which consists of dependency structures in source and target languages and correspondences between them. This proposed mechanism employs more extended mapping of correspondences than onetoone mapping used in conventional transfer systems, to allow expression of some peculiar or exceptional translation phenomena. Further, these translation rules can be used bidirectionally. Although, the proposed transfer mechanism is intended to be a foundation for an examplebased transfer system by coupling it with a mechanism selecting translation rules based on the similarity with an input, it can be also used as a foundation for a conventional transfer system.
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By
Lowe, David; Matthews, Robert
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28 Citations
In this paper we show, for the first time, how Radial Basis Function (RBF) network techniques can be used to explore questions surrounding authorship of historic documents. The paper illustrates the technical and practical aspects of RBF's, using data extracted from works written in the early 17th century by William Shakespeare and his contemporary John Fletcher. We also present benchmark comparisons with other standard techniques for contrast and comparison.
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By
Levison, Michael; Lessard, Greg
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1 Citations
Many languages make use of wordformation devices to allow speakers or writers to create new words when the existing vocabulary proves inadequate. In this paper we consider how these devices can be expressed formally, allowing them to be used in word and sentencegeneration, for dictionary expansion, and the like. The paper begins with some typical wordformation rules drawn mostly from French. Attention is drawn to some features of these rules which must be captured in any formal representation. The formal representation of a basic lexical transformation is presented in some detail, along with a number of examples. A computer implementation of the transformation system is described, together with a range of applications. A discussion of static and dynamic generation leads to the concept of an inverted transformation.
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By
Winkelmann, Carol L.
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11 Citations
This study concerns the convergence of electronic literacy, collaboration, and critical pedagogy in the classroom. I argue that teachers in the humanities must relinquish the vestiges of nonelectronic criteria in their assessments of electronic literacy. Instead, the interplay of human and technological factors in the classroom leads to a reaffirmation of literacy as a social process. The radical democratization and multivocality of the corporate or collaborativelywritten text demands a critical problematizing of our roles and actions as teacherreaders. The viability of static criteria for good literacy practices vanishes with electronic literacy. Feminist cyborg theory offers a useful paradigm for understanding the corporate text by bridging theories of electronic literacy and theories of collaborative learning. The cyborg is a dynamic technofusion of difference and contradiction: much like the corporate text. A cyborgian perspective reaffirms the polyvocalic, instable nature of postmodern literacy and calls for contextual writing criteria.
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By
Bailin, Alan
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2 Citations
This bibliography focuses on works discussing intelligent computerassisted language learning (ICALL). It includes over 200 entries divided into three sections: (1) collections, special issues and bibliographies, (2) general/theoretical works, (3) specific applications.
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By
Milic, Louis T.
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4 Citations
The Century of Prose Corpus is a historical corpus of British English of the period 1680–1780. It has been designed to provide a resource for students of the language of that era. The COPC is diachronic and may be considered a unit in what will eventually become a series of corpora providing access to the whole of the English language from the oldest specimens to the present. This article describes and explains the various features of the COPC.
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By
Priestley, H. A.
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3 Citations
Natural dualities are developed for varieties ofnvalued Łukasiewicz algebras with and without negation. These dualities are based on homfunctors, and parallel Stone duality for Boolean algebras. A translation is described which relates the natural dualities to the corresponding restricted Priestley dualities. This enables a unified approach to free algebras to be presented, whence R. Cignoli's characterisations of the finitely generated free algebras are elucidated and new descriptions of arbitrary free algebras obtained. Finally it is shown how dualities for subvarieties encode equational bases. An alternative approach is thereby provided to results of M.E. Adams and R. Cignoli.
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By
Laffal, Julius
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2 Citations
Part 1. The core of the concept analysis method is a dictionary of 43,000 words to each of which is assigned up to 5 of 168 concepts. Computer programs read each word of a text and produce a concept frequency profile of the text.Part 2. Comparisons of concept profiles ofTub andGulliver and Swift's own contemporary texts, as well as a composite text of 18th century writers, reveal thatGulliver is conceptually different fromTub and its coevals. The fourth book ofGulliver (Houyhnhnms) is significantly different from the first three books. The last two books ofGulliver (Laputa and Houyhnhnms) are more likeTub than are the first two books (Lilliput and Brobdingnag).Part 3. The concepts and words supporting these distinctions suggest two strands in Swift's thinking: the first, pessimism about the human condition; the second, interest in the quotidian world. Finally, such issues as disambiguation of homonyms, scoring of phrases, and the role of syntax are considered.
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By
Nowak, Marek; Vanderveken, Daniel
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1 Citations
Our purpose is to formulate a complete logic of propositions that takes into account the fact that propositions are both senses provided with truth values and contents of conceptual thoughts. In our formalization, propositions are more complex entities than simple functions from possible worlds into truth values. They have a structure of constituents (a content) in addition to truth conditions. The formalization is adequate for the purposes of the logic of speech acts. It imposes a stronger criterion of propositional identity than strict equivalence. Two propositions P and Q are identical if and only if, for any illocutionary force F, it is not possible to perform with success a speech act of the form F(P) without also performing with success a speech act of the form F(Q). Unlike hyperintensional logic, our logic of propositions is compatible with the classical Boolean laws of propositional identity such as the symmetry and the associativity of conjunction and the reduction of double negation.
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By
Kanovei, Vladimir; Reeken, Michael
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9 Citations
In this article we show how the universe ofBST,bounded set theory (a modification ofIST which is, briefly, a theory for the family of those sets inIST which are members of standard sets) can be enlarged by definable subclasses of sets (which are not necessarily sest in internal theories likeBST orIST) so that Separation and Replacement are true in the enlargement for all formulas, including those in which the standardness predicate may occur.
ThusBST is strong enough to incorporate external sets in the internal universe in a way sufficient to develop topics in nonstandard analysis inaccessible in the framework of a purely internal approach, such as Loeb measures.
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By
Epstein, George; Rasiowa, Helena
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This paper presents a monotonic system of Post algebras of order ω+ω* whose chain of Post constans is isomorphic with 0≤1≤2≤ ... ≤3≤2≤1. Besides monotonic operations, other unary operations are considered; namely, disjoint operations, the quasicomplement, succesor, and predecessor operations. The successor and predecessor operations are basic for number theory.
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By
Adams, M. E.; Dziobiak, W.
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3 Citations
LetL(K) denote the lattice (ordered by inclusion) of quasivarieties contained in a quasivarietyK and letD_{2} denote the variety of distributive (0, 1)lattices with 2 additional nullary operations. In the present paperL(D_{2}) is described. As a consequence, ifM+N stands for the lattice join of the quasivarietiesM andN, then minimal quasivarietiesV_{0},V_{1}, andV_{2} are given each of which is generated by a 2element algebra and such that the latticeL(V_{0}+V_{1}), though infinite, still admits an easy and nice description (see Figure 2) while the latticeL(V_{0}+V_{1}+V_{2}), because of its intricate inner structure, does not. In particular, it is shown thatL(V_{0}+V_{1}+V_{2}) contains as a sublattice the ideal lattice of a free lattice with ω free generators. Each of the quasivarietiesV_{0},V_{1}, andV_{2} is generated by a 2element algebra inD_{2}.
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By
Irizarry, Estelle
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In her remarkable 1861 book,The Woman of the Future, Concepción Arenal appropriated legal discourse, a wholly male domain, to plead the case for women's rights, in particular, education. Two different types of legal discourse emerge in her writing: that of written legislative law and that of courtroom advocacy. The computer can gather evidence of both; however, each mode of discourse requires different measures to weigh the significance of the findings. Easily obtainable repeat rates serve as an useful measure that can be related to what recognition psychologists call “retention intervals” and that are easily understood by nonstatistically oriented literary scholars. Analysis focuses on Arenal's use of typography, lexicon, repetition, ideological challenge, interactive discourse, and prescriptive speech acts of the legal register to advocate the cause of women in nineteenthcentury Spain.
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By
Sendlewski, Andrzej
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5 Citations
We study axiomatic extensions of the propositional constructive logic with strong negation having the disjunction property in terms of corresponding to them varieties of Nelson algebras. Any such varietyV is characterized by the property: (PQWC) ifA,B εV, thenA×B is a homomorphic image of some wellconnected algebra ofV.
We prove:
each varietyV of Nelson algebras with PQWC lies in the fibre σ^{−1}(W) for some varietyW of Heyting algebras having PQWC,
for any varietyW of Heyting algebras with PQWC the least and the greatest varieties in σ^{−1}(W) have PQWC,
there exist varietiesW of Heyting algebras having PQWC such that σ^{−1}(W) contains infinitely many varieties (of Nelson algebras) with PQWC.
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By
Xu, Ming
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4 Citations
The purpose of this paper is to present some results instit theory, a theory of agency proposed by N. Belnap and M. Perloff. We will establish a correspondence between the numbers ofstit modalities and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures, and consequently, a correspondence between the number of modes of actions/inactions instit theory and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures.
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By
Chagrov, A. V.; Chagrova, L. A.
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3 Citations
The main result is that is no effective algorithmic answer to the question:how to recognize whether arbitrary modal formula has a firstorder equivalent on the class of finite frames. Besides, two known problems are solved: it is proved algorithmic undecidability of finite frame consequence between modal formulas; the difference between global and local variants of firstorder definability of modal formulas on the class of transitive frames is shown.
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By
Benthem, Johan; Westerståhl, Dag
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4 Citations
We give a condensed survey of recent research on generalized quantifiers in logic, linguistics and computer science, under the following headings: Logical definability and expressive power, Polyadic quantifiers and linguistic definability, Weak semantics and axiomatizability, Computational semantics, Quantifiers in dynamic settings, Quantifiers and modal logic, Proof theory of generalized quantifiers.
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By
Ginzburg, Jonathan
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49 Citations
The paper is in two parts. In Part I, a semantics for embedded and query uses of interrogatives is put forward, couched within a situation semantics framework. Unlike many previous analyses,questions are not reductively analysed in terms of their answers. This enables us to provide a notion of ananswer that resolves a question which varies across contexts relative to parameters such as goals and inferential capabilities. In Part II of the paper, extensive motivation is provided for an ontology that distinguishes propositions, questions, and facts, while at the same time the semantics provided captures an important commonality between questions and propositions: factsprove propositions andresolve questions. This commonality is exploited to provide an explanation for why predicates such as ‘know’ carry presuppositions such as factivity and for a novel account of the behaviour of adverbially modified predicates with interrogative, declarative and factnominal arguments.
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By
Klavans, Judith; Tzoukermann, Evelyne
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3 Citations
This paper describes and discusses some theoretical and practical problems arising from developing a system to combine the structured but incomplete information from machine readable dictionaries (MRDs) with the unstructured but more complete information available in corpora for the creation of a bilingual lexical data base, presenting a methodology to integrate information from both sources into a single lexical data structure. The BICORD system (BIlingual CORpusenhanced Dictionaries) involves linking entries in Collins EnglishFrench and FrenchEnglish bilingual dictionary with a large EnglishFrench and FrenchEnglish bilingual corpus. We have concentrated on the class of action verbs of movement, building on earlier work on lexical correspondences specific to this verb class between languages (Klavans and Tzoukermann, 1989), (Klavans and Tzoukermann, 1990a), (Klavans and Tzoukermann, 1990b).^{1} We first examine the way prototypical verbs of movement are translated in the CollinsRobert (Atkins, Duval, and Milne, 1978) bilingual dictionary, and then analyze the behavior of some of these verbs in a large bilingual corpus. We incorporate the results of linguistic research on the theory of verb types to motivate corpus analysis coupled with data from MRDs for the purpose of establishing lexical correspondences with the full range of associated translations, and with statistical data attached to the relevant nodes.
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By
Sekine, Satoshi; Tsujii, Junichi
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The real difficulty in developing practical NLP systems is due to the fact that we do not know in advance what actualinstances of knowledge should be used in the application system, even though we know in advance whattypes of knowledge are required. An effective method for extracting linquistic knowledge from corpora is needed. We propose automatic linguistic knowledge acquisition from sublanguage corpora. The system combines existing linquistic knowledge and human intervention with corpus based techniques. The algorithm involves a “Gradual Approximation”, which works to converge linguistic knowledge gradually towards desirable results. We conducted three experiments. The first experiment revealed the characteristic of this algorithm and the others proved the effectiveness of this algorithm for a real corpus. The results show the algorithm is promising, though there are some problems; the practical problem of the parameters, the formalism problems to include more linguistic features and the combination with other linguistic clues for more development. We would like to continue the research to perform further experiments and to improve the algorithm.
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By
Lunsford, Karen
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2 Citations
An increasing number of services, particularly electronic texts, are available via the Internet to humanities scholars. This situation is novel and raises a number of questions which are brought out in this essay. Some of these questions are illustrated with reference toThe English Server at Carnegie Mellon University.
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By
Smith, M. W. A.
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For a decade or so, Liszt thrilled and astounded audiences at a time when virtuosity (often as an end in itself) was the norm and the piano had rapidly evolved into a form recognisable as a close relative of the instrument we know today. During this period Liszt frequently performed hisGrandes Etudes (1838), which he had developed from his boyhoodEtude en 12 exercices (1826) and which he later revised and technically simplified asEtudes d'Exécution transcendante (1851). Although Liszt's own performances cannot be recreated, procedures for generating electronic realizations, which contain nuances of balance and tempo, are described. All three versions of the eighth of Liszt's set of 12 studies are used for illustration. Contrary to received opinion, it is argued that the 1838 version is more satisfying than the 1851 revision and that this is due to its formal structure.
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By
Bradford, James H.; CôtéLaurence, Paulette
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This paper describes an experimental computer program that applies the techniques of artificial intelligence to the creation of dance. Specifically, a user expresses a set of dance rules (in a special Englishlike “rule language”) which describes some of the dynamic aspects of a dance. These rules are applied nondeterministically by a “rule driver” program. The rules themselves are similar to those that form the knowledge base of expert systems. The rule driver embodies a heuristic algorithm of the type found in many artificial intelligence programs.
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By
Martindale, Colin; McKenzie, Dean
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21 Citations
In studies of author attribution, measurement of differential use of function words is the most common procedure, though lexical statistics are often used. Content analysis has seldom been employed. We compare the success of lexical statistics, content analysis, and function words in classifying the 12 disputedFederalist papers. Of course, Mosteller and Wallace (1964) have presented overwhelming evidence that all 12 were by James Madison rather than by Alexander Hamilton. Our purpose is not to challenge these attributions but rather to useThe Federalist as a test case. We found lexical statistics to be of no use in classifying the disputed papers. Using both classical canonical discriminant analysis and a neuralnetwork approach, content analytic measures — the Harvard III Psychosociological Dictionary and semantic differential indices — were found to be successful at attributing most of the disputed papers to Madison. However, a functionword approach is more successful. We argue that content analysis can be useful in cases where the functionword approach does not yield compelling conclusions and, perhaps, in preliminary screening in cases where there are a large number of possible authors.
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By
Kaikhah, Khosrow; Gandy, Craig
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When a human being is constructing a sentence, he/she chooses words that not only ensure syntactical integrity but also satisfy semantic and in most cases contextual constraints. The system developed here mimics the way humans form sentences. In our approach a sentence is generated as a chain of words satisfying a number of semantic, syntactic and contextual constraints concurrently. This chaining process ensures the compatibility of different components and results in a cohesive and unambiguous sentence. The static lexical and structural objects which contain both semantic and syntactic knowledge interact with dynamically created objects which contain contextual knowledge in order to construct the word and phrase objects which ultimately constitute the sentence.
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By
Sigelman, Lee
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3 Citations
Reviewers are sharply divided about the success with which Marion Mainwaring “completed” Edith Wharton's unfinished novelThe Buccaneers. To gauge the “seamlessness” of the fit between Wharton's portion of the novel and the chapters that Mainwaring added, the present study presents a chapterbychapter analysis of the ratio of new types (i.e., words that did not appear in previous chapters) to tokens. Analysis of Wharton's classic novelsThe House of Mirth, Ethan Frome, andThe Age of Innocence indicates that the ratio of new types to tokens followed a standard progression in her work. Analysis of Wharton's twentynine chapters ofThe Buccaneers indicates that here, too, she was following the same course. However, analysis of the “completed” version ofThe Buccaneers reveals that the substitution of Mainwaring for Wharton as author caused a decisive break from the well established pattern.
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By
Ghilardi, Silvio; Zawadowski, Marek
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19 Citations
We show that (contrary to the parallel case of intuitionistic logic, see [7], [4]) there does not exist a translation fromS4^{2} (the propositional modal systemS4 enriched with propositional quantifiers) intoS4 that preserves provability and reduces to identity for Boolean connectives and □.
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By
Grygiel, Joanna
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In this paper we will prove that ifF is a filter of a free Boolean algebra such that the minimal cardinality of the set of generators ofF is an uncountable regular cardinal or a singular cardinal with uncountable cofinality thenF is freely generated.
By
Pym, David J.
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4 Citations
The λIIcalculus, a theory of firstorder dependent function types in CurryHowardde Bruijn correspondence with a fragment of minimal firstorder logic, is defined as a system of (linearized) natural deduction. In this paper, we present a Gentzenstyle sequent calculus for the λIIcalculus and prove the cutelimination theorem.
The cutelimination result builds upon the existence of normal forms for the natural deduction system and can be considered to be analogous to a proof provided by Prawitz for firstorder logic. The typetheoretic setting considered here elegantly illustrates the distinction between the processes of normalization in a natural deduction system and cutelimination in a Gentzenstyle sequent calculus.
We consider an application of the cutfree calculus, via the subformula property, to proofsearch in the λIIcalculus. For this application, the normalization result for the natural deduction calculus alone is inadequate, a (cutfree) calculus with the subformula property being required.
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By
Stainton, Robert J.
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23 Citations
Conclusion
The restricted semantic ellipsis hypothesis, we have argued, is committed to an enormous number of multiply ambiguous expressions, the introduction of which gains us no extra explanatory power. We should, therefore, reject it. We should also spurn the original version since: (a) it entails the restricted version and (b) it incorrectly declares that, whenever a speaker makes an assertion by uttering an unembedded word or phrase, the expression uttered has illocutionary force.
Once rejected, the semantic ellipsis hypothesis cannot account for the many exceptions to the syntactic ellipsis hypothesis. So, we can safely infer that the Claim is true.
(1)The Claim: Speakers can make assertions by uttering ordinary, unembedded, words and phrases.
To the degree that the Claim reallyis in tension with the primacy of sentences (i.e., the view that (a) only sentences can be used to make assertions and (b) only sentences are meaningful in isolation) this doctrine must also be rejected.
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By
Dunn, J. Michael
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50 Citations
We give a set of postulates for the minimal normal modal logicK_{+} without negation or any kind of implication. The connectives are simply ∧, ∨, □, ◊. The postulates (and theorems) are all deducibility statements ϕ ⊢ ψ. The only postulates that might not be obvious are
$$\diamondsuit \varphi \wedge \square \psi \vdash \diamondsuit (\varphi \wedge \psi )\square (\varphi \vee \psi ) \vdash \square \varphi \vee \diamondsuit \psi $$
.
It is shown thatK_{+} is complete with respect to the usual Kripkestyle semantics. The proof is by way of a Henkinstyle construction, with “possible worlds” being taken to be prime theories. The construction has the somewhat unusual feature of using at an intermediate stage disjoint pairs consisting of a theory and a “countertheory”, the countertheory replacing the role of negation in the standard construction. Extension to other modal logics is discussed, as well as a representation theorem for the corresponding modal algebras. We also discuss prooftheoretic arguments.
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By
Suzuki, NobuYuki
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5 Citations
Wajsberg and Jankov provided us with methods of constructing a continuum of logics. However, their methods are not suitable for superintuitionistic and modal predicate logics. The aim of this paper is to present simple ways of modification of their methods appropriate for such logics. We give some concrete applications as generic examples. Among others, we show that there is a continuum of logics (1) between the intuitionistic predicate logic and the logic of constant domains, (2) between a predicate extension ofS4 andS4 with the Barcan formula. Furthermore, we prove that (3) there is a continuum of predicate logics with equality whose “equalityfree fragment” is just the intuitionistic predicate logic.
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By
Urchs, Max
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2 Citations
Both logic and philosophy of science investigate formal aspects of scientific discourse, i.e. properties of (nonmonotonic) consequence operations for discursive logic. In the present paper we handle two of them: paraconsistency and enthymematycity.
By
Moltmann, Friederike
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23 Citations
Summary
In this paper, I have proposed a compositional semantic analysis of exception NPs from which three core properties of exception constructions could be derived. I have shown that this analysis overcomes various empirical and conceptual shortcomings of prior proposals of the semantics of exception sentences. The analysis was first formulated for simple exception NPs, where the EPcomplement was considered a setdenoting term and the EPassociate was a monadic quantifier. It was then generalized in two steps: first, in order to account for quantified EPcomplements, and second, in order to account for polyadic quantifiers as the EPassociates. An additional assumption that was made in several places was that EPs may operate at the level of implications. The consequences of this assumption, though, still have to be investigated.
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By
Kanovei, Vladimir; Reeken, Michael
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14 Citations
A problem which enthusiasts ofIST, Nelson's internal set theory, usually face is how to treat external sets in the internal universe which does not contain them directly. To solve this problem, we considerBST,bounded set theory, a modification ofIST which is, briefly, a theory for the family of thoseIST sets which are members of standard sets.
We show thatBST is strong enough to incorporate external sets in the internal universe in a way sufficient to develop the most advanced applications of nonstandard methods. In particular, we define inBST an enlargement of theBST universe which satisfies the axioms ofHST, an external theory close to a theory introduced by Hrbaček.
HST includes Replacement and Saturation for all formulas but contradicts the Power Set and Choice axioms (either of them is incompatible with Replacement plus Saturation), therefore to get an external universe which satisfies all ofZFC minus Regularity one has to pay by a restriction of Saturation. We prove thatHST admits a system of subuniverses which modelZFC (minus Regularity but with Power Set and Choice) and Saturation in a form restricted by a fixed but arbitrary standard cardinal.
Thus the proposed system of set theoretic foundations for nonstandard mathematics, based on the simple and natural axioms of the internal theoryBST, provides the treatment of external sets sufficient to carry out elaborate external constructions.
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By
Garcia, P.; Esteva, F.
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Distributive bounded lattices with a dual homomorphism as unary operation, called Ockham algebras, were firstly studied by Berman (1977). The varieties of Boolean algebras, De Morgan algebras, Kleene algebras and Stone algebras are some of the well known subvarieties of Ockham algebra. In this paper, new results about the congruence lattice of Ockham algebras are given. From these results and Urquhart's representation theorem for Ockham algebras a complete characterization of the subdirectly irreducible Ockham algebras is obtained. These results are particularized for a large number of subvarieties of Ockham algebras. For these subvarieties a full description of their subdirectly irreducible algebras is given as well.
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By
Jansana, Ramon
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In this paper we develop a general framework to deal with abstract logics associated with a given modal logic. In particular we study the abstract logics associated with the weak and strong deductive systems of the normal modal logicK and its intuitionistic version. We also study the abstract logics that satisfy the conditionC^{+}(X)=C(∪_{i≤n}I^{n}X) and find the modal deductive systems whose abstract logics, in addition to being classical or intuitionistic, satisfy that condition. Finally we study the deductive systems whose abstract logics satisfy, in addition to the already mentioned properties, the property that the operatorC^{+} is classical relative to some new defined operations.
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By
Prijatelj, Andreja
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5 Citations
In this paper, we introduce connectification operators for intuitionistic and classical linear algebras corresponding to linear logic and to some of its extensions withncontraction. In particular,ncontraction (n≥2) is a version of the contraction rule, wheren+1 occurrences of a formula may be contracted ton occurrences. Since cut cannot be eliminated from the systems withncontraction considered most of the standard prooftheoretic techniques to investigate metaproperties of those systems are useless. However, by means of connectification we establish the disjunction property for both intuitionistic and classical affine linear logics withncontraction.
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By
DeRose, Steven J.; Durand, David G.
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This paper describes the TEI guidelines' approach to describing hypertext features, the rationale that went into the design of the tagset, and the range of features included in the guidelines. It also discusses the relation and integration of TEI markup and the HyTime standard (ISO 10744).
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By
Terence Langendoen, D.; Simons, Gary F.
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1 Citations
In this paper, we concentrate on justifying the decisions we made in developing the TEI recommendations for feature structure markup. The first four sections of this paper present the justification for the recommended treatment of feature structures, of features and their values, and of combinations of features or values and of alternations and negations of features and their values. Section 5 departs briefly from the linguistic focus to argue that the markup scheme developed for feature structures is in fact a generalpurpose mechanism that can be used for a wide range of applications. Section 6 describes an auxiliary document called a “feature system declaration” that is used to document and validate a system of featurestructure markup. The seventh and final section illustrates the use of the recommended markup scheme with two examples, lexical tagging and interlinear text analysis.
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By
Morrill, Glyn
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9 Citations
Discontinuity refers to the character of many natural language constructions wherein signs differ markedly in their prosodic and semantic forms. As such it presents interesting demands on monostratal computational formalisms which aspire to descriptive adequacy. Pied piping, in particular, is argued by Pollard (1988) to motivate phrase structurestyle feature percolation. In the context of categorial grammar, Bach (1981, 1984), Moortgat (1988, 1990, 1991) and others have sought to provide categorial operators suited to discontinuity. These attempts encounter certain difficulties with respect to model theory and/or proof theory, difficulties which the current proposals are intended to resolve.
Lambek calculus is complete for interpretation byresiduation with respect to the adjunction operation of groupoid algebras (Buszkowski 1986). In Moortgat and Morrill (1991) it is shown how to give calculi for families of categorial operators, each defined by residuation with respect to an operation of prosodic adjunction (associative, nonassociative, or with interactive axioms). The present paper treats discontinuity in this way, by residuation with respect to three adjunctions: + (associative), (.,.) (splitpoint marking), andW (wrapping) related by the equations_{1}+s_{2}+s_{3}=(s_{1},s_{3})Ws_{2}. We show how the resulting methods apply to discontinuous functors, quantifier scope and quantifier scope ambiguity, pied piping, and subject and object antecedent reflexivisation.
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By
Francescotti, Robert M.
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15 Citations
Conclusion
Like Bennett's account of ‘even’, my analysis incorporates the following plausible and widespread intuitions. (a) The word ‘even’ does not make a truthfunctional difference; it makes a difference only in conventional implicature. In particular, ‘even’ functions neither as a universal quantifier, nor amost ormany quantifier. The only quantified statement that ‘EvenA isF’ implies is the existential claim ‘There is anx (namely,A) that isF’, but this implication is nothing more than what the Equivalence Thesis already demands. (b) ‘Even’ is epistemic in character, implying some type of unexpectedness, surprise, or unlikelihood. Moreover, despite Kay's arguments to the contrary, this implication is part of the meaning of ‘even’. (c) ‘Even’ is a scalar term, since unexpectedness comes in degrees. And, finally, (d) the felicity of an ‘even’sentenceS requires thatS* be sufficiently surprising in comparison to its true neighbors. However,pace Bennett, being more surprising than just one true neighbor will not suffice. At the same time, being more surprising than all true neighbors is unnecessary. Suffice it thatS* is more surprising than most true neighbors.
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By
Onyshkevich, Boyan; Nirenburg, Sergei
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10 Citations
In knowledgebased machine translation (KBMT), the lexicon can be specified and acquired only in close connection with the specification and acquisition of the world model (ontology) and the specification of the text meaning representation (interlingua) language. The former supplies the atoms for the specification of text meaning and provides world knowledge to support the inference processes necessary for a variety of disambiguation and meaning assignment operations. The latter is necessary for the formulation of the semantic zone of the lexicon entries, which can be viewed as containing the static building blocks of the text meaning representation. This is the view taken in the Mikrokosmos KBMT project.
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By
Voss, Clare; Dorr, Bonnie J.
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1 Citations
In this paper we present one aspect of our research on machine translation (MT): capturing the grammatical and computational relation between (i) the interlingua (IL) as defined declaratively in the lexicon and (ii) the IL as defined procedurally by way of algorithms that compose and decompose pivot IL forms. We begin by examining the interlinguas in the lexicons of a variety of current ILbased approaches to MT. This brief survey makes it clear that no consensus exists among MT researchers on the level of representation for defining the IL. In the section that follows, we explore the consequences of this missing formal framework for MT system builders who develop their own lexicalIL entries. The lack of software tools to support rapid IL respecification and testing greatly hampers their ability to modify representations to handle new data and new domains. Our view is that ILbased MT research needs both (a) the formal framework to specify possible IL grammars and (b) the software support tools to implement and test these grammars. With respect to (a), we propose adopting a lexicalized grammar approach, tapping research results from the study oftree grammars for natural language syntax. With respect to (b), we sketch the design and functional specifications for parts of ILustrate, the set of software tools that we need to implement and test the various IL formalisms that meet the requirements of a lexicalized grammar. In this way, we begin to address a basic issue in MT research, how to define and test an interlingua as a computational language — without building a full MT system for each possible IL formalism that might be proposed.
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By
Palmer, Martha; Wu, Zhibiao
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15 Citations
A common practice in operational Machine Translation (MT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems is to assume that a verb has a fixed number of senses and rely on a precompiled lexicon to achieve large coverage. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is too weak to cope with the similar problems of lexical divergences between languages and unexpected uses of words that give rise to cases outside of the precompiled lexicon coverage. We first examine the lexical divergences between English verbs and Chinese verbs. We then focus on a specific lexical selection problem—translating Englishchangeofstate verbs into Chinese verb compounds. We show that an accurate translation depends not only on information about the participants, but also on contextual information. Therefore, selectional restrictions on verb arguments lack the necessary power for accurate lexical selection. Second, we examine verb representation theories and practices in MT systems and show that under the fixed sense assumption, the existing representation schemes are not adequate for handling these lexical divergences and extending existing verb senses to unexpected usages. We then propose a method of verb representation based on conceptual lattices which allows the similarities among different verbs in different languages to be quantitatively measured. A prototype system UNICON implements this theory and performs more accurate MT lexical selection for our chosen set of verbs. An additional lexical module for UNICON is also provided that handles sense extension.
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Trujillo, Arturo
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2 Citations
This article proposes a classification for a subset of English spatial prepositions which is argued to have crosslinguistic validity by using it to classify a subset of Spanish spatial prepositions. The classification consists of a hierarchy of spatial relations where each node in the hierarchy satisfies a series of syntactic and semantic tests. These tests define properties which are then inherited uniformly throughout. Prepositions are assigned values from the lower nodes in the hierarchy either in the lexicon or through lexical rules. Similarities and differences between the spatial system of different languages can be described by appealing to the relations and lexical rules that the language allows. It is shown how the hierarchy is used for building a lexicon for the machine translation of spatial prepositions in a transferbased system.
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Johansson, Stig
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1 Citations
There is a great deal of variation in the encoding of spoken texts in electronic form, both with respect to the types of features represented and the way particular features are rendered. This paper surveys problems in the electronic representation of speech and presents the solutions proposed by the Text Encoding Initiative. The special tags needed for the encoding of spoken texts are discussed, including a mechanism for temporal alignment. Further work is needed on phonological aspects, parallel representation, and on the development of software which connects the systematic underlying representation with a workable format for input and display.
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By
Greenstein, Daniel; Burnard, Lou
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This paper focusses on the types of questions that are raised in the encoding of historical documents. Using the example of a 17th century Scottish Sasine, the authors show how TEIbased encoding can produce a text which will be of major value to a variety of future historical researchers. Firstly, they show how to produce a machinereadable transcription which would be comprehensible to a wordprocessor as a text stream filled with print and formatting instructions; to a text analysis package as compilation of named text segments of some known structure; and to a statistical package as a set of observations each of which comprises a number of defined and named variables. Secondly, they make provision for a machinereadable transcription where the encoder's research agenda and assumptions are reversible or alterable by secondary analysts who will have access to a maximum amount of information contained in the original source.
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By
Lavagnino, John; Mylonas, Elli
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A dramatic work may be seen either as an event or as a text; the TEI guidelines make it possible to encode a dramatic work in either way, but do not attempt to solve the difficult problem of doing both at once. The basic element of a dramatic work, when seen as a text, is the speech; the guidelines also provide elements for encoding other familiar parts of dramatic texts (such as stage directions and cast lists), as well as for encoding analytic information on various aspects of texts and performances that is not normally included in printed dramatic texts. There are often other formal structures in dramatic works that intersect with the structure of speeches — metrical structures, for example; we discuss approaches for encoding these structures.
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By
Melby, Alan
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1 Citations
This article begins by emphasizing the importance of terminology in this modern age of technical innovations and machinebased translation systems, establishing the need for a terminology interchange format, and distinguishing between lexicography and terminology. It then reviews previous attempts to establish terminology interchange formats and concludes with a forceful argument for a new system based on the TEIbased notions of elements and attributes.
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Chisholm, David; Robey, David
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This article identifies problems and proposes solutions for encoding verse texts in SGML. It is organized around a series of distinctions and oppositions which the TEI Work Group on Verse regard as significant. These include examination of the formal properties which distinguish verse from prose, followed by discussions of (1) textsearching vs analysis, (2) markup vs algorithms, (3) markup vs transcription, (4) uniformity vs choice, (5) specificity vs generality, (6) metrical convention vs linguistic realization, (7) structural vs nonstructural divisions and (8) fidelity vs interpretation. Using German and English verse forms as illustrations, the advantages and disadvantages of preline tagging, inline tagging and feature structure analysis are discussed. We suggest that metrical and rhyme conventions always be tagged at the highest possible level of text divisions.
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Cover, Robin C.; Robinson, Peter M. W.
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This paper chronicles the work of the TEI textual criticism working groups through several phases, documenting how and why the design goals were shaped by the requirements of several distinct user communities and by the nature of the textual evidence itself. Encoding schemes for the representation of physical details of textual witnesses were unified with encoding schemes for critical editing practices when it was observed that the two phenomena were inextricably layered and linked within real texts. Rationale is offered for the development teams' adherence to exceedingly general design principles: (a) the requirement that the encoding notations be neutral in texttheoretic terms; (b) the need to accommodate dramatically different texttransmission phenomena and research goals within diverse textcritical arenas; (c) the need for commensurability of the textcritical markup with encoding notations used in closely related textanalytic research. The paper also assesses the results of the effort in terms of the encoding scheme's adequacy for several scholarly purposes: suggestions are made concerning the need for programmatic testing, for refinement, and for extension of the encoding model to support a broader range of texttransmission phenomena and research objectives.
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By
Ide, Nancy; Véronis, Jean
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3 Citations
This article describes the major problems in devising a TEI encoding format for dictionaries, which, because of their high degree of structuring and compression of information, are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. The major problems for this task were (1) the tension between generality of the description, in order to be widely applicable across dictionaries, and descriptive power, that is, the ability to describe with precision the particular structure of any given dictionary; and (2) the need to accommodate different views and uses of the encoded dictionary, for example, as printed object and as a database of information.
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By
Green, Mitchell S.
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13 Citations
Grice's Quantity maxims have been widely misinterpreted as enjoining a speaker to make the strongest claim that she can, while respecting the other conversational maxims. Although many writers on the topic of conversational implicature interpret the Quantity maxims as enjoining such volubility, so construed the Quantity maxims are unreasonable norms for conversation. Appreciating this calls for attending more closely to the notion of what a conversation requires. When we do so, we see that eschewing an injunction to maximal informativeness need not deprive us of any ability to predict or explain genuine cases of implicature. Crucial to this explanation is an appreciation of how what a conversation, or a given stage of a conversation, requires, depends upon what kind of conversation is taking place. I close with an outline of this dependence relation that distinguishes among three importantly distinct types of conversation.
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Sette, A. M.; Carnielli, Walter A.
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13 Citations
This article introduces the threevaluedweaklyintuitionistic logicI^{1} as a counterpart of theparaconsistent calculusP^{1} studied in [11].I^{1} is shown to be complete with respect to certainthreevalued matrices. We also show that in the sense that any proper extension ofI^{1} collapses to classical logic.
The second part shows thatI^{1} is algebraizable in the sense of Block and Pigozzi (cf. [2]) in a way very similar to the algebraization ofP^{1} given in [8].
In the last part of the paper we suggest the definition of certain hierarchies of finitevalued propositional paraconsistent and weaklyintuitionistic calculi, and comment on their intrinsic interest.
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Venema, Yde
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1 Citations
This paper contributes to the theory of hybrid substructural logics, i.e. weak logics given by a Gentzenstyle proof theory in which there is only alimited possibility to use structural rules. Following the literture, we use an operator to mark formulas to which the extra structural rules may be applied. New in our approach is that we do not see this ∇ as a modality, but rather as themeet of the marked formula with a special typeQ. In this way we can make the specific structural behaviour of marked formulas more explicit.
The main motivation for our approach is that we can provide a nice, intuitive semantics for hybrid substructural logics. Soundness and completeness for this semantics are proved; besides this we consider some prooftheoretical aspects like cutelimination and embeddings of the ‘strong’ system in the hybrid one.
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By
Fitting, Melvin
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20 Citations
We continue a series of papers on a family of manyvalued modal logics, a family whose Kripke semantics involves manyvalued accessibility relations. Earlier papers in the series presented a motivation in terms of a multipleexpert semantics. They also proved completeness of sequent calculus formulations for the logics, formulations using a cut rule in an essential way. In this paper a novel cutfree tableau formulation is presented, and its completeness is proved.
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By
Rijke, Maarten; Venema, Yde
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16 Citations
For an arbitrary similarity type of Boolean Algebras with Operators we define a class ofSahlqvist identities. Sahlqvist identities have two important properties. First, a Sahlqvist identity is valid in a complex algebra if and only if the underlying relational atom structure satisfies a firstorder condition which can be effectively read off from the syntactic form of the identity. Second, and as a consequence of the first property, Sahlqvist identities arecanonical, that is, their validity is preserved under taking canonical embedding algebras. Taken together, these properties imply that results about a Sahlqvist variety V van be obtained by reasoning in the elementary class of canonical structures of algebras in V.
We give an example of this strategy in the variety of Cylindric Algebras: we show that an important identity calledHenkin's equation is equivalent to a simpler identity that uses only one variable. We give a conceptually simple proof by showing that the firstorder correspondents of these two equations are equivalent over the class of cylindric atom structures.
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Maksimova, Larisa
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9 Citations
In this paper we find an algebraic equivalent of the Hallden property in modal logics, namely, we prove that the Halldencompleteness in any normal modal logic is equivalent to the socalled superembedding property of a suitable class of modal algebras. The joint embedding property of a class of algebras is equivalent to the PseudoRelevance Property. We consider connections of the abovementioned properties with interpolation and amalgamation. Also an algebraic equivalent of of the principle of variable separation in superintuitionistic logics will be found.
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Pynko, Alexej P.
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6 Citations
The aim of this paper is to study the paraconsistent deductive systemP^{1} within the context of Algebraic Logic. It is well known due to Lewin, Mikenberg and Schwarse thatP^{1} is algebraizable in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi, the quasivariety generated by Sette's threeelement algebraS being the unique quasivariety semantics forP^{1}. In the present paper we prove that the mentioned quasivariety is not a variety by showing that the variety generated byS is not equivalent to any algebraizable deductive system. We also show thatP^{1} has no algebraic semantics in the sense of Czelakowski. Among other results, we study the variety generated by the algebraS. This enables us to prove in a purely algebraic way that the only proper nontrivial axiomatic extension ofP^{1} is the classical deductive systemPC. Throughout the paper we also study those abstract logics which are in a way similar toP^{1}, and are called hereabstract Sette logics. We obtain for them results similar to those obtained for distributive abstract logics by Font, Verdú and the author.
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By
Pigozzi, Don; Salibra, Antonino
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8 Citations
Theabstract variable binding calculus (VBcalculus) provides a formal framework encompassing such diverse variablebinding phenomena as lambda abstraction, Riemann integration, existential and universal quantification (in both classical and nonclassical logic), and various notions of generalized quantification that have been studied in abstract model theory. All axioms of the VBcalculus are in the form of equations, but like the lambda calculus it is not a true equational theory since substitution of terms for variables is restricted. A similar problem with the standard formalism of the firstorder predicate logic led to the development of the theory of cylindric and polyadic Boolean algebras. We take the same course here and introduce the variety of polyadic VBalgebras as a pure equational form of the VBcalculus. In one of the main results of the paper we show that every locally finite polyadic VBalgebra of infinite dimension is isomorphic to a functional polyadic VBalgebra that is obtained from a model of the VBcalculus by a natural coordinatization process. This theorem is a generalization of the functional representation theorem for polyadic Boolean algebras given by P. Halmos. As an application of this theorem we present a strong completeness theorem for the VBcalculus. More precisely, we prove that, for every VBtheory T that is obtained by adjoining new equations to the axioms of the VBcalculus, there exists a model D such that ⊢_{T}s=t iff ⊨_{D}s=t. This result specializes to a completeness theorem for a number of familiar systems that can be formalized as VBcalculi. For example, the lambda calculus, the classical firstorder predicate calculus, the theory of the generalized quantifierexists uncountably many and a fragment of Riemann integration.
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By
Dragalin, Albert G.
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1 Citations
We describe an explicit construction of algebraic models for theories with nonstandard elements either with classical or constructive logic. The corresponding truthvalue algebra in our construction is a complete algebra of subsets of some concrete decidable set. This way we get a quite finitistic notion of true which reflects a notion of the deducibility of a given theory. It enables us to useconstructive, prooftheoretical methods for theories with nonstandard elements. It is especially useful in the case of theories with constructive logic where algorithmic properties are essential.
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By
Vakarelov, Dimiter
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6 Citations
A duality between Pawlak's knowledge representation systems and certain information systems of logical type, called biconsequence systems is established. As an application a firstorder characterization of some informational relations is given and a completeness theorem for the corresponding modal logic INF is proved. It is shown that INF possesses finite model property and hence is decidable.
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By
Iturrioz, Luisa
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1 Citations
The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of algebraic structures related to manyvalued Łukasiewicz algebras. They are symmetrical Heyting algebras with a set of modal operators indexed by a finite completely symmetric poset. A representation theorem is given for these (not functionally complete) algebras.
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