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Johnson, David E.; Moss, Lawrence S.
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3 Citations
We consider the use ofevolving algebra methods of specifying grammars for natural languages. We are especially interested in distributed evolving algebras. We provide the motivation for doing this, and we give a reconstruction of some classic grammar formalisms in directly dynamic terms. Finally, we consider some technical questions arising from the use of direct dynamism in grammar formalisms.
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Denecke, Klaus; Hałkowska, Katarzyna
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Pcompatible identities are built up from terms with a special structure. We investigate a variety defined by a set ofPcompatible hybrid identities and answer the question whether a variety defined by a set ofPcompatible hyperidentities can be solid.
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Moshier, M. Andrew; Pollard, Carl J.
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1 Citations
It is wellknown that feature structures (Rounds and Kasper 1986) can be fruitfully viewed as forming a Scott domain (Moshier 1988). Once a linguistically motivated notion of “set value” in feature structures is countenanced, however, this is no longer possible inasmuch as unification of set values in general fails to yield a unique result. In Pollard and Moshier 1990 it was shown that, while falling short of forming a Scott domain, the set of feature structures possibly containing set values satisfies the weaker condition of forming a “2/3 SFP domain” when equipped with an appropriate notion of subsumption: that is, for any finite setS of feature structures, there is a finite setM of minimal upper bounds ofS such that any upper bound ofS is approximated by a member ofM. Unfortunately, the 2/3 SFP domains are not as pleasant to work with as Scott domains since they are not closed under all the familiar domain constructions; and the question has remained open whether the feature structure domain satisfies the added condition of profiniteness. (The profinite ωalgebraic domains with least elements are a subclass of the 2/3 SFP domains which enjoy the pleasant property of being the largest full subcategory of ωalgebraic domains that is closed under the usual domain constructions.) In this paper we resolve this question in the affirmative.
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By
Costa, Newton C. A.; Krause, Décio
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5 Citations
Schrödinger logics are logical systems in which the principle of identity is not true in general. The intuitive motivation for these logics is both Erwin Schrödinger's thesis (which has been advanced by other authors) that identity lacks sense for elementary particles of modern physics, and the way which physicists deal with this concept; normally, they understandidentity as meaningindistinguishability (agreemment with respect to attributes). Observing that these concepts are equivalent in classical logic and mathematics, which underly the usual physical theories, we present a higherorder logical system in which these concepts are systematically separated. A ‘classical’ semantics for the system is presented and some philosophical related questions are mentioned. One of the main characteristics of our system is that Leibniz' Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles cannot be derived. This fact is in accordance with some authors who maintain that quantum mechanics violates this principle. Furthermore, our system may be viewed as a way of making sense some of Schrödinger's logical intuitions about the nature of elementary particles.
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By
Urchs, Max
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Causality is a concept which is sometimes claimed to be easy to illustrate, but hard to explain. It is not quite clear whether the former part of this claim is as obvious as the latter one. I will not present any specific theory of causation. Our aim is much less ambitious; to investigate the formal counterparts of causal relations between events, i.e. to propose a formal framework which enables us to construct metamathematical counterparts of causal relations between singular events. This should be a good starting point to define formal counterparts for concepts like “causal law”, “causal explanation” and so on.
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By
Isles, David
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1 Citations
The traditional model theory of firstorder logic assumes that the interpretation of a formula can be given without reference to its deductive context. This paper investigates an interpretation which depends on a formula's location within a derivation. The key step is to drop the assumption that all quantified variables must have the same range and to require only that the ranges of variables in a derivation must be related in such way as to preserve the soundness of the inference rules. With each (consistent) derivation there is associated a “BuridanVolpin (orBV) structure” [M, {r(x)}] which is simply a Tarski structureM for the language and a map giving the ranger(x) of each variablex in the derivation. IfLK* is (approximately) the classical sequent calculusLK of Gentzen from which the structural contraction rules have been dropped, then our main result reads: If a set of firstordered formulas Γ has a Tarski modelM, then from any normal derivationD inLK* of Γ ⇒ Δ can be constructed aBV modelM_{D}=[M, {r(x)}] of Γ where each ranger(x) is finite.
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By
Johnson, Eric
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The ACTORS computer program processes the electronic text of a play, and, based on entranceandexit stage directions, it provides information about which characters are on stage simultaneously; such information can inform dramatic performances, and it can indicate errors and omissions in the text. Based on a table indexed for each character showing which characters appear on stage at least once with the indexed character and on a table showing which characters never appear on stage with the indexed character, possible doubling can be calculated for a production, often with the minimum number of actors.
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By
LaCure, Jon W.
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The analysis of sound symbolism in poetry is one of the more promising applications of computational methods. This paper proposes using database software with spreadsheet capabilities to give maximum versatility in the examination of consonant alliteration. In this case the database is drawn from a 10th century anthology of classical Japanese verse called theKokinshû. In recent years scholars have pointed out a few obvious examples of sound symbolism inKokinshû poetry. This study attempts to show that with these few notable exceptions, poetry of the period seems to have striven toward a balance in sound, avoiding techniques such as word initial alliteration which might call attention to itself.
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By
Vidal, JeanMarie; Quris, René
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1 Citations
Case report notes on encounters and exchanges between a clinician and a patient are a rich and irreplaceable source of information in studies of psychopathology. The analysis and exploitation of these notes may be considerably enhanced by transcribing the original notes to computer text files, and subsequently submitting these files to computerized “reading.” This makes it possible to take account both of qualitative and quantitative features of the behaviour and events described in the notes. Notes taken during encounters with an autistic subject were analyzed in this way. The subject's verbal and gestural repertoires were identified, together with their relative frequencies, their principal associations, and their trends over successive encounters for the items described. The method also made it possible to specify the way in which the Observer was involved in encounters, and his role in them. Major conclusions were that the autistic subject distinctly avoided triadic situations, preferentially pronounced words and phonemes similar to those of his own name, and did not distinguish between the representations he had of persons, objects, places, gestures and words. He also failed to distinguish between the representation he had of himself and of his own name.
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By
Steinhart, Eric
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3 Citations
Metaphors have computable semantics. A program called NETMET both generates metaphors and produces partial literal interpretations of metaphors. NETMET is based on Kittay's semantic field theory of metaphor and Black's interaction theory of metaphor. Input to NETMET consists of a list of literal propositions. NETMET creates metaphors by finding topic and source semantic fields, producing an analogical map from source to topic, then generating utterances in which terms in the source are identified with or predicated of terms in the topic. Given a metaphor, NETMET utilizes ifthen rules to generate the implication complex of that metaphor. The literal leaves of the implication complex comprise a partial literal interpretation.
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By
Ormerod, Beverley; Volet, JeanMarie; Jaccomard, Hélène
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1 Citations
This study reports on a statistical approach to Francophone African literature, addressing the issues of discourse bias and the specificity of female writing as against male. The research is based on a comparison of all the characters present in 20 novels written by male and female African authors, under the headings of importance, power and attitude. It suggests that a number of significant differences characterize the makeup of novels written by African female and male authors.
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By
Potter, Rosanne G.
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Both traditional and computerized scholars face problems when they attempt empirical research on women writers and women readers using currently available computational tools. This essay discusses some factors that have inhibited empirical research; it develops its examples from work in progress on 18th century English poetry and on reader responses. A number of large linguistic and text databases are almost useless for research on women writers because works by women are either not included or represented by easily accessible, rather than editorially clean, texts. Traditional and contemporary reader response studies are also insufficiently empirical for reasons of sexual bias or flaws in research design.
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By
Siegel, Muffy E. A.
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5 Citations
Conclusion
The facts aboutsuch, then, indicate not just thatsuch is a proadjective, but also that binding conditions apply broadly to proADJs and proCNs, as well as to a wide range of proarguments. If this is true, the CN binding process accomplished by rules (40) and (41) might better be expressed in a system that uses a Cooper (1979) store mechanism. In fact, Stump (p. 144) notes that this could easily be done. Meanings of the type of^{∨}P_{n} could be stored, just as NP meanings are, until an appropriate binding CN phrase was encountered. Binding conditions would simply require that a^{∨}P_{n} meaning not come out of storage until the derivation had emerged from its governing category. The behavior of the proadjectivesuch suggests that an expression of any category, if it is legitimately translatable as a variable, may be a fullfledged proform; many principles and mechanisms described to account for the widely studied pronouns in fact apply to nonargument categories.
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By
Wu, Dekai; Xia, Xuanyin
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5 Citations
We report experimental results on automatic extraction of an EnglishChinese translation lexicon, by statistical analysis of a large parallel corpus, using limited amounts of linguistic knowledge. To our knowledge, these are the first empirical results of the kind between an IndoEuropean and nonIndoEuropean language for any significant vocabulary and corpus size. The learned vocabulary size is about 6,500 English words, achieving translation precision in the 86–96% range, with alignment proceeding at paragraph, sentence, and word levels. Specifically, we report (1) progress on the HKUST EnglishChinese Parallel Bilingual Corpus, (2) experiments supporting the usefulness of restricted lexical cues for statistical paragraph and sentence alignment, and (3) experiments that question the role of handderived monolingual lexicons for automatic word translation acquisition. Using a handderived monolingual lexicon, the learned translation lexicon averages 2.33 Chinese translations per English entry, with a manuallyfiltered precision of 95.1%, and an automaticallyfiltered weighted precision of 86.0%. We then introduce a fully automatic twostage statistical methodology that is able to learn translations for collocations. A statisticallylearned monolingual Chinese lexicon is first used to segment the Chinese text, before applying bilingual training to produce 6,429 English entries with 2.25 Chinese translations per entry. This method improves the manuallyfiltered precision to 96.0% and the automaticallyfiltered weighted precision to 91.0%, an error rate reduction of 35.7% from using a handderived monolingual lexicon.
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By
Bergler, Sabine
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1 Citations
This paper addresses two types of mismatches in the translation of reported speech between German and English. The first mismatch is between the repeated use of the reported speech construction in English and the use of subjunctive in German used to indicate continued attribution. The second mismatch concerns the difference in usage of metonymic extensions in the subject position of reported speech. Examples show the different styles of reporting the utterances of somebody else. A wellstructured lexicon is presented as one step to the solution of the problems presented. One key feature of the proposed lexicon is a metalexical organization of basic word entries, which is shown to facilitate the translation process. We contrast our notions of lexical structure with different recent proposals in machine translation.
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By
Gopestake, Ann; Briscoe, Ted; Vossen, Piek; Ageno, Alicia; Castellon, Irene; Ribas, Francesc; Rigau, German; Rodríguez, Horacio; Samiotou, Anna
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6 Citations
In this paper we present a methodology for extracting information about lexical translation equivalences from the machine readable versions of conventional dictionaries (MRDs), and describe a series of experiments on semiautomatic construction of a linked multilinguallexical knowledge base for English, Dutch, and Spanish. We discuss the advantages and limitations of using MRDs that this has revealed, and some strategies we have developed to cover gaps where no direct translation can be found.
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By
Freund, Max A.
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We present a relative consistency proof for second order systemRRC* and for certain important extensions of this system. The proof proceeds as follows: we prove first the equiconsistency of the strongest of such extensions (viz., systemH RRC*+(∃/CP**)) with second order systemT_{λ}^{*}
. Now, N. Cocchiarella has shown thatT_{λ}^{*}
is relatively consistent to systemT*+Ext; clearly, it follows thatH RRC*+(∃/CP**) is relatively consistent toT*+E_{xt}. As an immediate consequence, the relative consistency ofRRC* and the other extensions also follows, being all of them subsystems ofH RRC*+(∃/CP**).
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By
Aarts, Erik
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5 Citations
In the Lambek calculus of order 2 we allow only sequents in which the depth of nesting of implications is limited to 2. We prove that the decision problem of provability in the calculus can be solved in time polynomial in the length of the sequent. A normal form for proofs of second order sequents is defined. It is shown that for every proof there is a normal form proof with the same axioms. With this normal form we can give an algorithm that decides provability of sequents in polynomial time.
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By
Dorr, Bonnie J.; Garman, Joseph; Weinberg, Amy
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1 Citations
Our goal is to construct largescale lexicons for interlingual MT of English, Arabic, Korean, and Spanish. We describe techniques that predict salient linguistic features of a nonEnglish word using the features of its English gloss (i.e., translation) in a bilingual dictionary. While not exact, owing to inexact glosses and languagetolanguage variations, these techniques can augment an existing dictionary with reasonable accuracy, thus saving significant time. We have conducted two experiments that demonstrate the value of these techniques. The first tested the feasibility of building a database of thematic grids for over 6500 Arabic verbs based on a mapping between English glosses and the syntactic codes in Longman's Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) (Procter, 1978). We show that it is more efficient and less errorprone to handverify the automatically constructed grids than it would be to build the thematic grids by hand from scratch. The second experiment tested the automatic classification of verbs into a richer semantic typology based on (Levin, 1993), from which we can derive a more refined set of thematic grids. In this second experiment, we show that a bruteforce, nonrobust technique provides 72% accuracy for semantic classification of LDOCE verbs; we then show that it is possible to approach this yield with a more robust technique based on finetuned statistical correlations. We further suggest the possibility of raising this yield by taking into account linguistic factors such as polysemy and positive and negative constraints on the syntaxsemantics relation. We conclude that, while human intervention will always be necessary for the construction of a semantic classification from LDOCE, such intervention is significantly minimized as more knowledge about the syntaxsemantics relation is introduced.
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By
Pałasińska, Katarzyna
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1 Citations
There are exactly two nonfinitely axiomatizable algebraic matrices ℳ with one binary connective o such thatx(yz) is a tautology of ℳ. This answers a question asked by W. Rautenberg in [2], P. Wojtylak in [8] and W. Dziobiak in [1]. Since every 2element matrix can be finitely axiomatized ([3]), the matrices presented here are of the smallest possible size and in some sense are the simplest possible.
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By
Galvan, Sergio
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1 Citations
The paper studies two formal schemes related to ωcompleteness.
LetS be a suitable formal theory containing primitive recursive arithmetic and letT be a formal extension ofS. Denoted by (a), (b) and (c), respectively, are the following three propositions (where α(x) is a formula with the only free variable x): (a) (for anyn) (⊢_{T} α(n)), (b) ⊢_{T} ∀_{x} Pr_{T}(^{−}α(x)^{−}) and (c) ⊢_{T} ∀xα(x) (the notational conventions are those of Smoryński [3]). The aim of this paper is to examine the meaning of the schemes which result from the formalizations, over the base theoryS, of the implications (b) ⇒ (c) and (a) ⇒ (b), where α ranges over all formulae. The analysis yields two results overS : 1. the schema corresponding to (b) ⇒ (c) is equivalent to ¬Cons_{T} and 2. the schema corresponding to (a) ⇒ (b) is not consistent with 1CON_{T}. The former result follows from a simple adaptation of the ωincompleteness proof; the second is new and is based on a particular application of the diagonalization lemma.
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By
Komori, Yuichi
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3 Citations
In this note, we will study four implicational logicsB, BI, BB′ and BB′I. In [5], Martin and Meyer proved that a formula α is provable inBB′ if and only if α is provable inBB′I and α is not of the form of β » β. Though it gave a positive solution to theP  W problem, their method was semantical and not easy to grasp. We shall give a syntactical proof of the syntactical relation betweenBB′ andBB′I logics. It also includes a syntactical proof of Powers and Dwyer's theorem that is proved semantically in [5]. Moreover, we shall establish the same relation betweenB andBI logics asBB′ andBB′I logics. This relation seems to say thatB logic is meaningful, and so we think thatB logic is the weakest among meaningful logics. Therefore, by Theorem 1.1, our Gentzentype system forBI logic may be regarded as the most basic among all meaningful logics. It should be mentioned here that the first syntactical proof ofP  W problem is given by Misao Nagayama [6].
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By
Goré, Rajeev
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5 Citations
We present sound, (weakly) complete and cutfree tableau systems for the propositional normal modal logicsS4.3, S4.3.1 andS4.14. When the modality □ is given a temporal interpretation, these logics respectively model time as a linear dense sequence of points; as a linear discrete sequence of points; and as a branching tree where each branch is a linear discrete sequence of points.
Although cutfree, the last two systems do not possess the subformula property. But for any given finite set of formulaeX the “superformulae” involved are always bounded by a finite set of formulaeX*_{L} depending only onX and the logicL. Thus each system gives a nondeterministic decision procedure for the logic in question. The completeness proofs yield deterministic decision procedures for each logic because each proof is constructive.
Each tableau system has a cutfree sequent analogue proving that Gentzen's cutelimination theorem holds for these latter systems. The techniques are due to Hintikka and Rautenberg.
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By
Lonsdale, Deryle; Mitamura, Teruko; Nyberg, Eric
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5 Citations
Although knowledgebased MT systems have the potential to achieve high translation accuracy, each successful application system requires a large amount of handcoded lexical knowledge. Systems like KBMT89 and its descendents have demonstrated how knowledgebased translation can produce good results in technical domains with tractable domain semantics. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the development task for largescale applications with tens of thousands of domain concepts precludes a purely handcrafted approach. The current challenge for the “next generation” of knowledgebased MT systems is to utilize online textual resources and corpus analysis software in order to automate the most laborious aspects of the knowledge acquisition process. This partial automation can in turn maximize the productivity of human knowledge engineers and help to make largescale applications of knowledgebased MT an viable approach. In this paper we discuss the corpusbased knowledge acquisition methodology used in KANT, a knowledgebased translation system for multilingual document production. This methodology can be generalized beyond the KANT interlingua approach for use with any system that requires similar kinds of knowledge.
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By
Nola, Antonio; Lettieri, Ada
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43 Citations
In this paper we prove that the category of abelianlgroups is equivalent to the category of perfect MValgebras. Furthermore, we give a finite equational axiomatization of the variety generated by perfect MValgebras.
By
Zadrozny, Wlodek
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20 Citations
We prove a theorem stating that any semantics can be encoded as a compositional semanties, which means that, essentially, the standard definition of compositionality is formally vacuous. We then show that when compositional semantics is required to be “systematic” (that is, the meaning function cannot be arbitrary, but must belong to some class), it is possible to distinguish between compositional and noncompositional semantics. As a result, we believe that the paper clarifies the concept of compositionality and opens the possibility of making systematic formal comparisons of different systems of grammar.
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Nordgård, Torbjørn
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This paper describes an implementation of a deterministic parsing system, described in Nordgård (1993). The syntax of “heuristic rules” and how the rules interact with the basic operations of the parser constitute the bulk of the article. The implementation is written in Medley Interlisp, and the system can be run on Sun or Xerox workstations.
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Johansson, Stig
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The focus of the paper is on the use of computer corpora in language research. The historical background is touched on, with special reference to work within the International Computer Archive of Modern English (ICAME). Developments in the use of corpora are surveyed. Issues taken up include the representativeness and structure of corpora. Special attention is paid to pitfalls in the use of corpora. Corpus compilers must provide adequate documentation on the texts. Corpus users must know the corpus in order to evaluate whether it is appropriate for their research problem and in order to evaluate the results of their studies.
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By
Dyvik, Helge
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1 Citations
The central properties of an experimental system for machine translation, PONS, and the ideas behind them, are presented and motivated. PONS achieves a compromise between linguistic sophistication and efficiency by automatically exploiting structural similarities between source and target language in order to take “shortcuts” during the translation process. The system uses a PATRtype linguistic formalism to encode LFGtype grammatical descriptions and Situation Semanticstype semantic descriptions, and it is implemented in Medley Interlisp.
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By
Sanne, Signe Marie
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1 Citations
In this paper an interactive video system for language learning will be discussed. The various parts and media contained in the system are connected by a multitude of links which lend themselves to explorative learning. Particular attention is given to the way the grammar section is incorporated and how it is accessed.
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By
Oldervoll, Jan
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A short description of the availability of computerreadable sources in Norway are given. The bulk of these data are censustype data, and this is even the field where most of the present dataentry is done. Within a few years all census data before 1900 will be in machinereadable form. Historians in Norway are very familiar with computer technology. In spite of these two facts Norwegian historians are generally not very advanced computer users compared to most countries in the western world. The author tries to connect this to the abundance of data.
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By
Thorvaldsen, Gunnar
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5 Citations
This article first briefly discusses the use of the computer in three fields of historical research in Norway: text retrieval in medieval documents, roll call analysis, and the study of social history and historical demography. The treatment of highly structured source material like censuses is then explored more fully, especially the coding of information about family status, occupation and birth place. In order to standardize this information, historians have developed several coding schemes and sophisticated software for the combined use of the full text and the encoded versions.
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By
Ore, ChristianEmil
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The Documentation Project is a cooperative project between Faculties of Arts in the Norwegian universities. It aims to produce “the Norwegian universities' databases for language and culture” from the paperbased archives at the participating institutions. The project has been active on a national basis since 1992. This paper describes the methodologies involved and ongoing subprojects.
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By
Ore, Espen S.
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1 Citations
Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and digital maps are increasingly available to the computerusing humanities scholar. As a result, questions of data availability and validity are the more crucial. Digital maps may be stored in different formats, both as regards coordinate systems in use and the level of sophistication available for storing geographical information related to the maps. The maps themselves are often under copyright by a national survey agency and the situation in Norway is outlined. Historical sources may often contain geographic references to administrative units that are no longer valid. An example is taken from the University Museum of Antiquities in Oslo. Finally, an example is given of a project where maps from 1880 and 1910 are used in an architectural history project.
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By
Huitfeldt, Claus
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8 Citations
This paper discusses one of the tools which may be used for representing texts in machinereadable form, i.e. encoding systems or markup languages. This discussion is at the same time a report on current tendencies in the field. An attempt is made at reconstructing some of the main conceptions of text lying behind these tendencies. It is argued that, although the conceptions of texts and text structures inherent in these tendencies seem to be misguided, text encoding is nevertheless a fruitful approach to the study of texts. Finally, some conclusions are drawn concerning the relevance of this discussion to themes in text linguistics.
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By
Chiquito, Ana Beatriz
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4 Citations
The use of metacognitive strategies of learning and instruction such as content abstracts or previews, subtitles and captioning (onscreen foreign language subtitles) have been recurrent pedagogical tools for facilitating foreign language (L2) instruction. New technology has broadened their scope and multiplied the ways in which they can be used in L2 computerbased applications. A pilot test was carried out using a hypermedia instructional application for Spanish: “Operación Futuro.” The test addresses the question of how two types of metacognitive strategies, written and spoken Advance Organizers (AOs) and verbatim Captioning (CP) may facilitate L2 comprehension and recall.
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By
Raskin, Victor; Attardo, Salvatore; Attardo, Donalee H.
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The centerpiece of the paper is SMEARR, an enriched and augmented lexical database with a database management system and several peripherals. It is presented as a polytheoretical shareable resource in computational semantics and justified as a manageable empiricallybased study of the meaning bottleneck in NLP. The relation between SMEARR entries and the examples of formal semantic descriptions in the generative and postgenerative semantic literature is explored, revealing a significant discrepancy in the formalisms and in the very nature of formality between computational and theoretical semantics. Finally, the idea of variabledepth semantics, developed in earlier publications, is brought up in the context of SMEARR.
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By
Minnis, Stephen
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This article describes a simple and cost effective evaluation method based on postediting. The results of an experiment using this method, to investigate the improvement of an MT system over time are given, along with some practicalities in carrying through the evaluation (time, effort etc.)
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By
Weaver, George E.
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This paper introduces the notion of syntactic feature to provide a unified treatment of earlier model theoretic proofs of both the compactness and interpolation theorems for a variety of two valued logics including sentential logic, first order logic, and a family of modal sentential logic includingM,B,S_{4} andS_{5}. The compactness papers focused on providing a proof of the consequence formulation which exhibited the appropriate finite subset. A unified presentation of these proofs is given by isolating their essential feature and presenting it as an abstract principle about syntactic features. The interpolation papers focused on exhibiting the interpolant. A unified presentation of these proofs is given by isolating their essential feature and presenting it as a second abstract principle about syntactic features. This second principle reduces the problem of exhibiting the interpolant to that of establishing the existence of a family of syntactic features satisfying certain conditions. The existence of such features is established for a variety of logics (including those mentioned above) by purely combinatorial arguments.
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By
Nagayama, Misao
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1 Citations
A BCKalgebra is an algebra in which the terms are generated by a set of variables, 1, and an arrow. We mean by aBCKidentity an equation valid in all BCKalgebras. In this paper using a syntactic method we show that for two termss andt, if neithers=1 nort=1 is a BCKidentity, ands=t is a BCKidentity, then the rightmost variables of the two terms are identical.
This theorem was conjectured firstly in [5], and then in [3]. As a corollary of this theorem, we derive that the BCKalgebras do not form a variety, which was originally proved algebraically by Wroński ([4]).
To prove the main theorem, we use a Gentzentype logical system for the BCKalgebras, introduced by Komori, which consists of the identity axiom, the right and the left introduction rules of the implication, the exchange rule, the weakening rule and the cut. As noted in [2], the cutelimination theorem holds for this system.
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By
Tokarz, Marek
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The aim of this paper is to test Grice's theory of conversational implication [1], socalledimplicature, by putting it into operation in the simplest possible formal language, that is, by constructing an adequate zeroorder (sentential) logic. We are going to give a recursive formal description of Grice's maxims and show that the description cannot be made finite.
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By
Prüst, Hub; Scha, Remko; Berg, Martin
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13 Citations
We argue that an adequate treatment of verb phrase anaphora (VPA) must depart in two major respects from the standard approaches. First of all, VP anaphors cannot be resolved by simply identifying the anaphoric VP with an antecedent VP. The resolution process must establish a syntactic/semantic parallelism between larger units (clauses or discourse constituent units) that the VPs occur in. Secondly, discourse structure has a significant influence on the reference possibilities of VPA. This influence must be accounted for.
We propose a treatment which meets these requirements. It builds on a discourse grammar which characterizes discourse cohesion by means of a syntactic/semantic matching procedure which recognizes parallel structures in discourse. It turns out that this independently motivated procedure yields the resolution of VPA as a side effect.
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By
Wolter, Frank
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2 Citations
We define an embedding from the lattice of extensions ofT into the lattice of extensions of the bimodal logic with two monomodal operators □_{1} and □_{2}, whose □_{2}fragment isS5 and □_{1}fragment is the logic of a twoelement chain. This embedding reflects the fmp, decidability, completenes and compactness. It follows that the lattice of extension of a bimodal logic can be rather complicated even if the monomodal fragments of the logic belong to the upper part of the lattice of monomodal logics.
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By
Xu, Ming
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7 Citations
The purpose of this paper is to prove the decidability ofstit theory (a logic of “seeing to it that”) with a single agent andRefref Equivalence. This result is obtained through an axiomatization of the theory and a proof that it has thefinite model property. A notion ofcompanions to stit formulas is introduced and extensively used in the proof.
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By
Barker, Stephen J.
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5 Citations
Conclusion
A comprehensive theory ofeven if needs to account for consequent ‘entailing’even ifs and in particular those of theiffocused variety. This is where the theory ofeven if ceases to be neutral between conditional theories. I have argued thatiffocusedeven ifs,especially if andonly if can only be accounted for through the suppositional theory ofif. Furthermore, a particular interpretation of this theory — the conditional assertion theory — is needed to account foronly if and a type of metalinguistic negation ofQ if P. We therefore have evidence that the currently accepted approaches to conditionals are basically wrong about the semantic forms they attribute toif P, Q.^{11}
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By
Freund, Michael; Lehmann, Daniel
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6 Citations
A. Tarski [22] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary inference operations is inspired by the results of [12] on nonmonotonic inference relations, and relies on some of the definitions found there.
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By
Guzmán, Fernando
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Conditional logic is the deductive system 〈
$$\mathcal{L}$$
, ⊨〉 where
$$\mathcal{L}$$
is the set of propositional connectives {∧, ∨,′} and ⊨ is the structural finitary consequence relation on the absolutely free algebra
$$F_{m_\mathcal{L} } $$
that preserves degrees of truth over the structure of truth values 〈C, ≤〉. HereC is the noncommutative regular extension of the 2element Boolean algebra to 3 truth values {t, u, f}, andf<u<t. In this paper we give a Gentzen type axiomatization for conditional logic.
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By
Boitet, Christian; Blanchon, Hervé
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8 Citations
DialogueBased Machine Translation (DBMT) is a new paradigm for translation situations where other approaches such as the LinguisticBased (LBMT) and the KnowledgeBased (KBMT) approaches, are not adequate. In DBMT, although the linguistic knowledge sources are still crucial, and extralinguistic knowledge might be used if available, emphasis is on indirect preediting through a negotiation and a clarification dialogue with the author in order to get high quality translations without revision. Authors are distinguished from “spontaneous” writers or speakers by the fact that they want to produce a “clean” final message and may be willing to enter into such dialogues. After having described the main situational, linguistic and ergonomic issues in DBMT for monolingual authors, we describe ongoing work on the LIDIA project. The typical translational situation considered is the production of multilingual technical documentation in the form of HyperCard stacks. Notable points in the linguistic design include multilevel transfer with interlingual acceptions, properties and relations, the “guided language” approach (typed textual fragments and lexical peferences), and a TEIinspired representation of texts and structures. The current mockup, LIDIA1.0, demonstrates the majority of these ideas on a HyperCard stack, to be translated from French into German, Russian and English. Some of its aspects are discussed in detail, in particular the user interface, the objectoriented implementation, and the production of disambiguation dialogues.
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By
Goranko, Valentin
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12 Citations
Complete deductive systems are constructed for the nonvalid (refutable) formulae and sequents of some propositional modal logics. Thus, complete syntactic characterizations in the sense of Lukasiewicz are established for these logics and, in particular, purely syntactic decision procedures for them are obtained. The paper also contains some historical remarks and a general discussion on refutation systems.
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By
Rybakov, Vladimir V.
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4 Citations
The main result of this paper is the following theorem: each modal logic extendingK4 having the branching property belowm and the effective mdrop point property is decidable with respect to admissibility. A similar result is obtained for intermediate intuitionistic logics with the branching property belowm and the strong effective mdrop point property. Thus, general algorithmic criteria which allow to recognize the admissibility of inference rules for modal and intermediate logics of the above kind are found. These criteria are applicable to most modal logics for which decidability with respect to admissibility is known and to many others, for instance, to the modal logicsK4,K4.1,K4.2,K4.3,S4.1,S4.2,GL.2; to all smallest and greatest counterparts of intermediate GabbayDeJong logicsD_{n}; to all intermediate GabbayDeJong logicsD_{n}; to all finitely axiomatizable modal and intermediate logics of finite depth etc. Semantic criteria for recognizing admissibility for these logics are offered as well.
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By
Chen, SiQing; Xu, Luomai
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A lexicon is an essential part of any natural language processing system. The size, content and format of the lexicon is crucial in determining the power and sophistication of a natural language processing system. However, a lexicon which provides comprehensive, consistent and accurate lexical information and which is in a format facilitating fast retrieval is not easily available. This paper reports on a project which aims at the development of such a lexicon. The resulting lexicon is actually the modified and extended version of the machine tractable version of the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. The modification and extension concentrate mainly on the aspects of comprehensiveness, consistency, explicitness, accuracy and the dictionary format. The modified and extended version is considered a desirable source of lexical information for any natural language processing system.
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By
Jackson, Elizabeth R.
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André Gide's collection offaits divers spans a period of fifty years and includes more than 650 documents. A database analysis offers an efficient means of handling such extensive material. Our goal is to trace statistically this author's varied interests as they evolved throughout his career.
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By
Bolton, Whitney
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Conclusion
This review ofNB4.1 and its modules has had to omit far, far more than it has had space to include. It is both astounding and heartening that small specialized firms can successfully produce such ingenious, responsive software in competition with the huge WordPerfect Corporation and its thirdparty adherents.
Criterial toWP6D is its graphical interface; crucial toNB4.1 isNBL. WP6D sets out to be all things to a business user with builtin spreadsheet and FAX support.NB4.1 sets out to be a scholar's workstation with international characters and textretrieval and bibliographical modules. Its brochure declares that “all creative people have their toolsphotographers their cameras, artists their brushes, scholarly writers theirNota Bene.” The brochure's analogy of cameras and brushes subtextually qualifies its proclamation ofNB4.1's superiority: not only for academic manuscripts but also for many, probably most, documents that do not require graphics, theNota Bene suite of programs is without peer.
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By
Salemans, Ben J. P.
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The aim of this paper is to reveal the limitations of relying on “fingerprint formulas” or “signature positions” to identify printed editions, in the manner of the STCN project. The paper proposes that scanned images of texts be used to identify editions.
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By
Beauvois, Margaret Healy
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39 Citations
This paper is the description of an experiment in Etalk, computerassisted classroom discussion, undertaken at a large southwestern university with a class of intermediate French students. We describe the research design and the results as they relate to the students' attitudes and motivation. The research seems to indicate that there are important benefits to using a local area network (LAN) as a means of encouraging discussion amongst students.
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By
Haas, Stephanie W.
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1 Citations
A crucial issue in hypertext design is how to give the reader new capabilities without taking any existing ones away. This paper discusses the conversion of traditional, printed scholarly text to hypertext, focusing on the presentation of the explicit links between texts that are represented by direct quotations. It first examines how quotations are used by the author and the reader in traditional text. It then considers the conversion of scholarly text to hypertext, concentrating on how direct quotations should be handled. Three specific areas are examined: (i) what kinds of links are necessary, and what they should link together, (ii) how the linked texts should be divided into sections or nodes, and (iii) how the links and nodes should be displayed to the reader. The paper concludes by listing some recommendations for the conversion of scholarly text to hypertext.
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By
Smith, M. W. A.
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Features of scores of music for which composers have provided both tempo directions and metronome marks are recorded in a relational database. Comparisons based on a selection of factors, chosen by the user, can then be performed to obtain an estimate of a metronome mark for a work for which none is given. Another type of application is to investigate the interpretation a composer places upon his tempo directions when aspects of the score which affect the perception of speed are taken into account. The design and operation of the database, which is written in the dBase IV programming language, are described. As an example of an application, a metronome mark for the first of Liszt's “Transcendental Studies” (1851) is estimated.
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By
Burrows, J. F.; Craig, D. H.
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2 Citations
Critics have condemned English Romantic tragedies as a series of poor imitations of Renaissance tragedy. This paper tests such “literarycritical” questions through statistical comparisons of ten plays from each group. The measures chosen give evidence of a strong and consistent difference between the groups, going beyond historical changes in the language. The Romantic tragedies are more expository; the Renaissance ones include more commonplace interactions between characters. The later plays do not show the marked variations in functionword frequencies of their predecessors. Of the Renaissance plays, Shakespeare's show the closest affinity to the Romantic tragedies, and the most telling contrasts.
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By
Kanazawa, Makoto
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23 Citations
In this paper, I show that the availability of what some authors have called the weak reading and the strong reading of donkey sentences with relative clauses is systematically related to monotonicity properties of the determiner. The correlation is different from what has been observed in the literature in that it concerns not only right monotonicity, but also left monotonicity (persistence/antipersistence). I claim that the reading selected by a donkey sentence with a double monotone determiner is in fact the one that validates inference based on the left monotonicity of the determiner. This accounts for the lack of strong reading in donkey sentences with ↑ MON → determiners, which have been neglected in the literature. I consider the relevance of other natural forms of inference as well, but also suggest how monotonicity inference might play a central role in the actual process of interpretation. The formal theory is couched in dynamic predicate logic with generalized quantifiers.
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By
Holmes, David I.
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104 Citations
This paper considers the problem of quantifying literary style and looks at several variables which may be used as stylistic “fingerprints” of a writer. A review of work done on the statistical analysis of “change over time” in literary style is then presented, followed by a look at a specific application area, the authorship of Biblical texts.
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By
Fontenelle, Thierry; Adriaens, Geert; Braekeleer, Gert
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This paper tackles some of the problems encountered while developing the FrenchEnglish version of the SiemensNixdorf METAL^{®} computerassisted translation system. The first part deals with the general problem of delimiting lexical units and the second part describes a few concrete translation problems and the solutions that have been adopted in this experimental transferbased system. The role and importance of the lexicons is stressed, focussing more specifically on the possibility the lexicographer is given to manipulate complex structures and to control the translation process directly.
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By
Strossa, Petr
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The paper discusses a methodology of machine assisted translation (MAT) as an alternative to fully automatic MT. A prototype MAT system is described, which is an integration of a ‘dictionary database system’ and a text editor. The functional requests for such a system from the linguistic point of view and some general problems of designing and implementing such systems are presented. Special attention is given to languagedependence, and to the problem of completeness and efficiency of the linguistic data representation for a very simple system. A statistic analysis of English inflexion and word derivation patterns is presented.
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By
Dimarco, Chrysanne; Mah, Keith
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1 Citations
The study of comparative stylistics attempts to catalogue and explain the differences in style between languages. Rules of comparative stylistics are commonly presented in textbooks of translation as simple ‘rules of thumb’, but if we hope to incorporate a knowledge of comparative stylistics into machine translation systems, we must take a more systematic approach. We develop a formal model of comparative syntactic stylistics to be used as a component of a general computational theory of style. We adapt textbook rules of human translation and study a small corpus of FrenchEnglish translations to determine how these informal rules can be represented in our model as formal rules of translation. Our model of comparative stylistics could be implemented in a machine translation system, enabling the system to make a more informed decision about possible translation choices and their potential stylistic effects.
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By
Połacik, Tomasz
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We consider propositional operators defined by propositional quantification in intuitionistic logic. More specifically, we investigate the propositional operators of the formA* :p ↦ ∃q(p ≡A(q)) whereA(q) is one of the following formulae: (¬¬q →q) V ¬¬q, (¬¬q →q) → (¬¬q V ¬q), ((¬¬q →q) → (¬¬q V ¬q)) → ((¬¬q →q) V ¬¬q). The equivalence ofA*(p) to ¬¬p is proved over the standard topological interpretation of intuitionistic second order propositional logic over Cantor space.
We relate topological interpretations of second order intuitionistic propositional logic over Cantor space with the interpretation of propositional quantifiers (as the strongest and weakest interpolant in Heyting calculus) suggested by A. Pitts. One of the merits of Pitts' interpretation is shown to be valid for the interpretation over Cantor space.
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By
Fuhrmann, André; Mares, Edwin D.
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1 Citations
The sentential logic S extends classical logic by an implicationlike connective. The logic was first presented by Chellas as the smallest system modelled by contraining the StalnakerLewis semantics for counterfactual conditionals such that the conditional is effectively evaluated as in the ternary relations semantics for relevant logics. The resulting logic occupies a key position among modal and substructural logics. We prove completeness results and study conditions for proceeding from one family of logics to another.
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By
Rasiowa, Helena
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5 Citations
A first order uncountably valued logicL_{Q(0,1)} for management of uncertainty is considered. It is obtained from approximation logicsL_{T} of any poset type (T, ⩽) (see Rasiowa [17], [18], [19]) by assuming (T, ⩽)=(Q(0, 1), ⩽) — whereQ(0, 1) is the set of all rational numbersq such that 0<q<1 and ⩽ is the arithmetic ordering — by eliminating modal connectives and adopting a semantics based onLTfuzzy sets (see Rasiowa and Cat Ho [20], [21]). LogicL_{Q(0,1)} can be treated as an important case ofLTfuzzy logics (introduced in Rasiowa and Cat Ho [21]) for (T, ⩽)=(Q(0, 1), ⩽), i.e. asLQ(0, 1)fuzzy logic announced in [21] but first examined in this paper.L_{Q(0,1)} deals with vague concepts represented by predicate formulas and applies approximate truthvalues being certain subsets ofQ(0, 1). The set of all approximate truthvalues consists of the empty set ø and all nonempty subsetss ofQ(0, 1) such that ifq∈s andq′⩽q, thenq′∈s. The setLQ(0, 1) of all approximate truthvalues is uncountable and covers up to monomorphism the closed interval [0, 1] of the real line.LQ(0, 1) is a complete set lattice and therefore a pseudoBoolean (Heyting) algebra. Equipped with some additional operations it is a basic plain semiPost algebra of typeQ(0, 1) (see Rasiowa and Cat Ho [20]) and is taken as a truthtable forL_{Q(0,1)} logic.L_{Q(0,1)} can be considered as a modification of Zadeh's fuzzy logic (see Bellman and Zadeh [2] and Zadeh and Kacprzyk, eds. [29]). The aim of this paper is an axiomatization of logicL_{Q(0,1)} and proofs of the completeness theorem and of the theorem on the existence ofLQ(0, 1)models (i.e. models under the semantics introduced) for consistent theories based on any denumerable set of specific axioms. Proofs apply the theory of plain semiPost algebras investigated in Cat Ho and Rasiowa [4].
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By
Amati, Giambattista; Pirri, Fiora
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4 Citations
We present tableau systems and sequent calculi for the intuitionistic analoguesIK, ID, IT, IKB, IKDB, IB, IK4, IKD4, IS4, IKB4, IK5, IKD5, IK45, IKD45 andIS5 of the normal classical modal logics. We provide soundness and completeness theorems with respect to the models of intuitionistic logic enriched by a modal accessibility relation, as proposed by G. Fischer Servi. We then show the disjunction property forIK, ID, IT, IKB, IKDB, IB, IK4, IKD4, IS4, IKB4, IK5, IK45 andIS5. We also investigate the relationship of these logics with some other intuitionistic modal logics proposed in the literature.
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