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By
Logan, Harry M.
3 Citations
This paper offers a brief survey of some important developments in the use of computers in making dictionaries and lexicons. Making a dictionary involves collecting the data, sorting and lemmatizing, editing and printing. Five major types of machinereadable dictionaries have developed from these procedures: Machine Readable Lexicons of individual authors, Machine Readable Dictionaries with codes for linguistic information, Machine Dictionaries with selected information, and Lexical Databases with lexical information abstracted from machinereadable dictionaries. The second edition of the QED is a machinereadable dictionary with codes that may provide the basis for a diachronic lexical database.
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By
Arad, Iris
This article provides an overview of the BITS HebrewEnglish bibliographic translation system developed at CCL, UMIST. This is an experimental machine translation system for translating bibliographic references in which first generation translation techniques are combined with more recent developments in computer science. The experiment explores whether simple techniques can be used to achieve usable translations in this context. The input material, the preediting system and the general architecture of the BITS system are described and evaluated in view of current MT research.
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By
Chang, ChaoHuang; Krulee, Gilbert K.
2 Citations
In this paper, we present a typology of ambiguity in Chinese, which includes morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, and contextual ambiguities. Examples are shown for each type of ambiguity and sometimes for subtypes. Ambiguity resolution strategies used in the ALICE machine translation system are presented in various levels of detail. A disambiguation model, called FourStep, is proposed for resolving syntactic ambiguities involving serial verb construction and predication. As the name suggests, the model comprises four stepswellformedness checking, preference for argument readings, precondition checking, and late closure. For resolving semantic ambiguity, we propose a new formalism, called Semantic Functional Grammar (SFG), to deal with the resolution problem. SFG integrates the concept of Semantic Grammar into LexicalFunctional Grammar (LFG) such that the functional structure (fstructures) include semantic functions in addition to grammatical functions. For dealing with lexical and contextual ambiguities, we briefly describe the mechanisms used in the ALICE system. As for morphological ambiguity, the resolution is a problem of wordboundary decision (segmentation) and is beyond the scope of this research. The mechanisms presented in the paper have been successfully applied to the translation of Chinese news headlines in the ALICE system.
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By
Milic, Louis
5 Citations
This paper attempts to assess the progress made in computational stylistics dyring the course of the past twentyfive years. First, we discuss some theoretical notions of style, and then we sketch certain trends that emerge from relevant articles appearing in a variety of publications including conference proceedings and academic journals (other than CHum). The conclusion is that progress has been mixed.
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By
Raben, Joseph
8 Citations
This paper attempts to provide an overview of the development of humanities computing during the past twentyfive years. Mention is made of the major applications of the computer to humanities disciplines, and of the most important and representative projects across the world.
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By
Neuman, Michael
1 Citations
Since April 1989, the Center for Text and Technology at Georgetown University has gathered information on the structure of projects that produce electronic text in the humanities. This report — based on the April, 1991 version of the Georgetown Catalogue and emphasizing its fulltext projects in humanities disciplines other than linguistics —surveys the countries in which projects are found, the languages encoded, the disciplines served, and the auspices represented. Then the report explores three trends toward the improvement of electronic texts: increased scope of the new projects, improved quality of the editions used, and greater sophistication in the textanalysis tools added. Included among the notes is a list of titles and contacts for 42 projects cited in the report.
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By
Kawasaki, Zenshiro; Yamano, Fumiyuki; Yamasaki, Noriyuki
1 Citations
This paper presents a new method for utilizing translator knowledge bases for machine translation systems. Translator knowledge to be stored and utilized consists of ‘translationally equivalent pattern pairs’: surfacelevel phrasal, clausal, and sentential correspondences between the source and target languages. This knowledge will be utilized to translate domainspecific idiomatic, nonstandard, or ungrammatical expressions. The proposed method has been implemented in an adaptive English to Japanese machine translation system, HICATS/EJ, as one of its customization facilities.
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By
Chesnutt, David R.
A late 1990 survey found that most historical editors in the United States continue to use the computer primarily as a word processing tool to prepare texts and editorial apparatus. Among older projects, a migration from mainframe or minicomputers to PCs has been the norm. New developments in the field include the “Founding Fathers” CDROM project, the impending release of Version 2.0 of NLCindex, and a strong interest in the Text Encoding Initiative.
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By
Potter, Rosanne G.
12 Citations
This retrospective on statistical analysis of literature in the first twentyfour years of Computers and the Humanities divides the essays under review into four groups: the philosophical, the statistical analyses of language, the statistical analyses of literary texts, and the statistical analyses of themes. It begins with the question: must valid statistical analysis of any literary text be based on a complete linguistic description of the language of the text? It summarizes and evaluates over forty essays, giving details on works discussed, sample sizes used, statistical methods applied, and quotations from the researchers. The essay ends with a polemical summary of what has been done and what the future holds. It emphasizes the importance of extended precomputational stages of learning about language and discourse analysis; reading previous research, building on and challenging theory; and the use of carefully crafted, small databases to test specific questions.
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By
Hewlett, Walter B.; SelfridgeField, Eleanor
2 Citations
While there are many parallels between computing activities in musicology and those in other humanities disciplines, the particular nature of musical material and the ways in which this must be accommodated set many activities apart from those in textbased disciplines. As in other disciplines, early applications were beset by hardware constraints, which placed a premium on expertise and promoted designintensive projects. Massive musical encoding and bibliographical projects were initiated. Diversification of hardware platforms and languages in the Seventies led to taskspecific undertakings, including preliminary work on many of today's programs for music printing and analysis. The rise of personal computers and associated generalpurpose software in the Eighties has enabled many scholars to pursue projects individually, particularly with the assistance of database, word processing, and notation software. Current issues facing the field include the need for standards for data interchange, the creation of banks of reusable data, the establishment of qualitative standards for encoded data, and the encouragement of realistic appraisals of what computers can do.
The musicologist Eleanor SelfridgeField, who is the author of three books on Italian music and numerous articles, editions, and reviews, has worked at CCARH since its founding in 1984. Her most recent book, The Music of Benedetto and Alessandro Marcello (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), which contains 1300 musical examples, was produced from cameraready copy supplied by CCARH.
Drs. Hewlett and SelfridgeField jointly edit the series Computing in Musicology, which is published by CCARH, and cochair the International Musicological Society's Study Group on Musical Data and Computer Applications.
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By
Klavans, Judith L.; Chodorow, Martin S.
This paper presents the results of our experience in using an instructional morphological parser (IMP) as a teaching tool in two graduate level courses, one in theoretical morphology and the other in computational morphology. IMP was written in Waterloo PROLOG by the second author and is based on the UDICT morphology system (Byrd 1983). The courses were taught by the first author at the Graduate School of the City University of New York. We present a brief overview of computational morphology and discuss in detail the implementation we used for IMP. We then give an outline of the two courses with some speculation on the computational and linguistic concepts that our students learned. In particular, we discuss the problems we encountered in teaching the notion of recursion.
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By
Meyer, Ingrid
With increasing humanmachine interaction in the professional translator's work environment, more and more translator training programs are launching translationspecific computer studies. This paper focuses on the researchoriented, as opposed to the practicallyoriented, translation program. We argue that computer studies in such a program should prepare students for research at either the receiving or production ends of machine translation systems, both of which require linguistic, computational and translational expertise. We discuss some general considerations for the design of such computer studies, based on a seminar given in the M.A. Translation program at the University of Ottawa, Canada.
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By
Cushing, Steven
A new onesemester course is described in which undergraduate students in nontechnical majors are shown how traditional philosophical problems of knowledge, cognition, language, and human nature can be fruitfully investigated with computerrelated concepts and techniques. A series of simple experiments is used to demonstrate to undergraduates that mental phenomena are real, that they can be studied experimentally, and that they can be modeled insightfully in computational — i.e., informationprocessing — terms. Each experiment illustrates a basic fact or principle of cognitive science: the formal character of algorithms; creativity and the variants of the Turing test; limitations on human memories; the use of cognitive strategies; heuristic techniques of artificial intelligence; formal grammars and their associated parsers; social, societal, and anthropological dimensions of mind; and degrees of logicality in human reasoning. Students are also taught the essentials of PROLOG, a programming language that is based explicitly on formal logic, incorporating such notions as fact, database, and query, thereby lending itself readily to the description of complex relational networks of a sort not commonly expected to be amenable to computer analysis.
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By
Koch, Christian
If there is to be a new, substantive area of teaching and research that combines competence in specific areas of the humanities with computer science understandings and skills, such teaching and research needs to be led by persons who themselves are competent in both the humanities and in computer science, rather than by a team of persons who represent a division of labors along the lines of “idea” persons and “technical” persons. The new kind of teaching and research that might result is pointed to by describing a connectionist, neural network approach to the study of metaphor.
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By
Greenberg, Gary
This paper describes how the creative arts can provide an alternative approach to computer programming that may benefit students in the humanities in general. It focuses on creative arts projects using text, graphics and music that allow students to encounter the same programming concepts from a number of different perspectives. It also discusses the importance of symbolic programming for the arts and how the creative arts can provide a particularly rich environment for developing approaches to objectoriented programming.
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By
Noord, Gertjan; Dorrepaal, Joke; Eijk, Pim; Florenza, Maria; Ruessink, Herbert; Tombe, Louis
Show all (6)
2 Citations
The MiMo2 translation system combines several leading ideas in the areas of linguistics, computation and translation. In the area of translation we follow the ideas of Landsbergen (1987) by assuming that translation is symmetric; and combine these ideas with the advantages of a transfer approach. Computationally the system focuses on computability and declarativity. The linguistics of the system is based on a lexicalistic and signbased approach to grammar.
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By
KirchmeierAndersen, Sabine
This paper illustrates the implementation of 9 language modules and 72 transfer components in the Eurotra formalism. It gives an overview of the grammatical and lexical coverage of the monolingual grammars and transfer components and a detailed description of the translation process following a sentence from input text to output text.
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By
Czelakowski, Janusz; Dziobiak, Wiesław
5 Citations
We propose a new schema for the deduction theorem and prove that the deductive system S of a prepositional logic L fulfills the proposed schema if and only if there exists a finite set A(p, q) of propositional formulae involving only prepositional letters p and q such that A(p, p) ⊑ L and p, A(p, q) ⊢_{s}q.
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By
Sharp, Randall
3 Citations
In developing a theory of MT, it is desirable to have a methodology just powerful enough to achieve the intended results without introducing unnecessary complexity. A formalism designed to embody the methodology, and its implementation in some computer language, should also reflect this characteristic. This notion of appropriate complexity underlies the philosophy behind the cat2 MT system, a powerful yet simple instantiation of the Eurotra MT methodology. This report describes the cat2 formalism, and compares it to the Eurotra Engineering Framework, as well as to other formalisms for linguistic analysis. It is stressed that with a minimal set of formal devices the cat2 formalism achieves a level of adequacy equivalent to if not superior to the official Eurotra system.
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By
Rautenberg, W.
4 Citations
Let V be a s.f.b. (strongly finitely based, see below) variety of algebras. The central result is Theorem 2 saying that the logic defined by all matrices (A, d) with d ε A ε V is finitely based iff the A ε V have 1^{st} order definable cosets for their congruences. Theorem 3 states a similar axiomatization criterion for the logic determined by all matrices (A, ε^{A}), A ∈ V, ε a term which is constant in V. Applications are given in a series of examples.
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By
ZelinskyWibbelt, Cornelia
1 Citations
This paper is concerned with the conditions under which token reference to individuals comes about on the one hand and type reference to the whole kind of an entity is rendered on the other. We consider how the process of reference comes about with nouns inherently denoting mass concepts and with nouns denoting countable concepts. We exemplify the interpretation of np readings with a rule component which has been implemented in the machine translation system cat2. Out of these np readings those articles are to be generated which are in accordance with the languagespecific conventions.
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By
Maddux, Roger D.
55 Citations
The calculus of relations was created and developed in the second half of the nineteenth century by Augustus De Morgan, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Ernst Schröder. In 1940 Alfred Tarski proposed an axiomatization for a large part of the calculus of relations. In the next decade Tarski's axiomatization led to the creation of the theory of relation algebras, and was shown to be incomplete by Roger Lyndon's discovery of nonrepresentable relation algebras. This paper introduces the calculus of relations and the theory of relation algebras through a review of these historical developments.
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By
Monteiro, Luiz; Savini, Sonia; Sewald, Julio
The notion of monadic threevalued Łukasiewicz algebras was introduced by L. Monteiro ([12], [14]) as a generalization of monadic Boolean algebras. A. Monteiro ([9], [10]) and later L. Monteiro and L. Gonzalez Coppola [17] obtained a method for the construction of a threevalued Łukasiewicz algebra from a monadic Boolea algebra. In this note we give the construction of a monadic threevalued Łukasiewicz algebra from a Boolean algebra B where we have defined two quantification operations ∃ and ∃^{*} such that ∃∀^{*}x=∀^{*}∃x (where ∀^{*}x=∃^{*}x). In this case we shall say that ∃ and ∃^{*} commutes. If B is finite and ∃ is an existential quantifier over B, we shall show how to obtain all the existential quantifiers ∃^{*} which commute with ∃.
Taking into account R. Mayet [3] we also construct a monadic threevalued Łukasiewicz algebra from a monadic Boolean algebra B and a monadic ideal I of B.
The most essential results of the present paper will be submitted to the XXXIX Annual Meeting of the Unión Matemática Argentina (October 1989, Rosario, Argentina).
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By
Pratt, Vaughan
20 Citations
Dynamic algebras combine the classes of Boolean (B ∨ ′ 0) and regular (R ∪; *) algebras into a single finitely axiomatized variety (B R ◊) resembling an Rmodule with “scalar” multiplication ◊. The basic result is that * is reflexive transitive closure, contrary to the intuition that this concept should require quantifiers for its definition. Using this result we give several examples of dynamic algebras arising naturally in connection with additive functions, binary relations, state trajectories, languages, and flowcharts. The main result is that free dynamic algebras are residually finite (i.e. factor as a subdirect product of finite dynamic algebras), important because finite separable dynamic algebras are isomorphic to Kripke structures. Applications include a new completeness proof for the Segerberg axiomatization of prepositional dynamic logic, and yet another notion of regular algebra.
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By
Allegranza, Valerio; Bech, Annelise
1 Citations
The purpose of this article is to present a treatment of unbounded dependencies which is currently being experimented with in Eurotra. The treatment is based on the coindexation tool designed by the authors as an extension to the EFramework, Eurotra's NLP formalism.
On the EFramework, cf. Bech and Nygaard 1988, and Bech et al. (previous issue of this journal). A first extension to the framework, in terms of ‘recursion markers,’ was introduced by Allegranza (1988) and implemented in PROLOG by Giovanni Malnati. Allegranza and Bech (1989) integrated it with a structurecopying component due to Annelise Bech and Anders Nygaard.
At present, the tool has been tested in a systematic way in the Danish, French, Italian, and Spanish modules of the Eurotra translation system. Testing work on other languages (especially German) is in progress. Our article is organized as follows: in section 1, we discuss the linguistic and translational motivations for the treatment presented here; in section 2, we give the syntax and semantics of the two main components of the coindexation tool, namely the recursion markers and the copy operator; section 3 shows how this machinery can be applied for the implementation of unbounded dependency constructions according to our approach.
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By
Font, Josep M.; Verdú, Ventura
14 Citations
In this paper we study the relations between the fragment L of classical logic having just conjunction and disjunction and the variety D of distributive lattices, within the context of Algebraic Logic. We prove that these relations cannot be fully expressed either with the tools of Blok and Pigozzi's theory of algebraizable logics or with the use of reduced matrices for L. However, these relations can be naturally formulated when we introduce a new notion of model of a sequent calculus. When applied to a certain natural calculus for L, the resulting models are equivalent to a class of abstract logics (in the sense of Brown and Suszko) which we call distributive. Among other results, we prove that D is exactly the class of the algebraic reducts of the reduced models of L, that there is an embedding of the theories of L into the theories of the equational consequence (in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi) relative to D, and that for any algebra A of type (2,2) there is an isomorphism between the Dcongruences of A and the models of L over A. In the second part of this paper (which will be published separately) we will also apply some results to give proofs with a logical flavour for several new or wellknown latticetheoretical properties.
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By
Cignoli, Roberto
14 Citations
The infinitevalued logic of Łukasiewicz was originally defined by means of an infinitevalued matrix. Łukasiewicz took special forms of negation and implication as basic connectives and proposed an axiom system that he conjectured would be sufficient to derive the valid formulas of the logic; this was eventually verified by M. Wajsberg. The algebraic counterparts of this logic have become know as Wajsberg algebras. In this paper we show that a Wajsberg algebra is complete and atomic (as a lattice) if and only if it is a direct product of finite Wajsberg chains. The classical characterization of complete and atomic Boolean algebras as fields of sets is a particular case of this result.
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By
Arnold, Doug; Sadler, Louisa
We discuss some different ideas about the sort of formalism appropriate for translation (more specifically, transfer) that have been explored within Eurotra. The intention is not to evaluate these different ideas, but to outline the issues of general interest and relevance that they raise. Section 1 describes some common assumptions, section 2 describes the different ways they have been interpreted, and section 3 considers some further implications.
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By
Maksimova, Larisa
22 Citations
This is a survey of results on interpolation in propositional normal modal logics. Interpolation properties of these logics are closely connected with amalgamation properties of varieties of modal algebras. Therefore, the results on interpolation are also reformulated in terms of amalgamation.
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By
Németi, István
51 Citations
This paper is an introduction: in particular, to algebras of relations of various ranks, and in general, to the part of algebraic logic algebraizing quantifier logics. The paper has a survey character, too. The most frequently used algebras like cylindric, relation, polyadic, and quasipolyadic algebras are carefully introduced and intuitively explained for the nonspecialist. Their variants, connections with logic, abstract model theory, and further algebraic logics are also reviewed. Efforts were made to make the review part relatively comprehensive. In some directions we tried to give an overview of the most recent results and research trends, too.
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By
Dalrymple, Mary; Shieber, Stuart M.; Pereira, Fernando C. N.
149 Citations
We present a new method for characterizing the interpretive possibilities generated by elliptical constructions in natural language. Unlike previous analyses, which postulate ambiguity of interpretation or derivation in the full clause source of the ellipsis, our analysis requires no such hidden ambiguity. Further, the analysis follows relatively directly from an abstract statement of the ellipsis interpretation problem. It predicts correctly a wide range of interactions between ellipsis and other semantic phenomena such as quantifier scope and bound anaphora. Finally, although the analysis itself is stated nonprocedurally, it admits of a direct computational method for generating interpretations.
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By
Elliott, W. E. Y.; Valenza, R. J.
3 Citations
We introduce an authorship identification test, called modal analysis, based on a new statistic derived from the KarhunenLoeve transform. Application to the poems of the Shakespearean canon and to other contemporary poetry strongly supports the case for disqualification of most major claimants. Results also cast doubt that the recently discovered poems, Shall I Die and Elegy, were written by William Shakespeare, but do suggest that eight unascribed poems of The Passionate Pilgrim may have been his work.
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By
West, Alan N.
7 Citations
Freud (1900/1938) described primary process thought as an archaic, global, nontemporal mode of consciousness in which logic and disbelief are suspended. Hypothetically, it is the form of awareness associated with mystical experiences. The Regressive Imagery Dictionary (Martindale, 1975) is a wellvalidated computerized contentanalytic measure of primary process thought in natural language texts. The dictionary was used to assess mystic content in the King James Bible. Across the entire Bible, primary process content best fits a fifthdegree polynomial function consistent with Underhill's (1911) model of spiritual development in the prototypical Christian mystic.
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By
Bech, Annelise; Maegaard, Bente; Nygaard, Anders
1 Citations
This paper gives a presentation of the Eframework, the formalism used in Eurotra for implementing the prototype translation system. In Section 1, we outline some of the underlying design principles and briefly discuss the evolutionary history of the Eurotra formalism, relating it to its predecessors and other recent unificationbased formalisms. Section 2 introduces the reader to some central concepts and gives a comprehensive description of the core of the formalism.
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By
Durand, Jacques; Bennett, Paul; Allegranza, Valerio; Eynde, Frank; Humphreys, Lee; Schmidt, Paul; Steiner, Erich
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6 Citations
In this article, we outline the contents of the linguistic specifications of the Eurotra machine translation system. We start in sections 1 and 2 from some of the requirements placed by multilingual MT on the overall design of the linguistic components. We then move on to a characterization of the Eurotra interface structure (section 3), the nature of transfer (section 4), and trends towards more interlingual representations within the project (section 5). Thereafter, we concentrate on the contents of the various levels beside the interface structure (section 6) before giving a brief survey of word structure (section 7) and outlining some areas for further research (section 8)
The authors of this article are indebted to many other members of the project too numerous to be mentioned here. They wish to record a special intellectual debt to previous members of the Eurotra Linguistics Specification team and, in particular, Doug Arnold, Louis des Tombe and Lieven Jaspaert who did so much to establish sound theoretical bases for multilingual MT (see inter alia Arnold, Jaspaert and des Tombe 1985; Arnold 1986; Arnold and des Tombe 1987). For an extensive version of the overview presented here, see Allegranza et al. 1991. For another recent presentation of Eurotra, see Raw, Vandecapelle and Van Eynde 1988.
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By
Johnson, Fred
5 Citations
The paper shows that for any invalid polysyllogism there is a procedure for constructing a model with a domain with exactly three members and an interpretation that assigns nonempty, nonuniversal subsets of the domain to terms such that the model invalidates the polysyllogism.
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By
Priest, Graham
69 Citations
The paper explains how a paraconsistent logician can appropriate all classical reasoning. This is to take consistency as a default assumption, and hence to work within those models of the theory at hand which are minimally inconsistent. The paper spells out the formal application of this strategy to one paraconsistent logic, firstorder LP. (See, Ch. 5 of: G. Priest, In Contradiction, Nijhoff, 1987.) The result is a strong nonmonotonic paraconsistent logic agreeing with classical logic in consistent situations. It is shown that the logical closure of a theory under this logic is trivial only if its closure under LP is trivial.
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By
Fleischer, Isidore; Scott, Philip
A theorem on the extendability of certain subsets of a Boolean algebra to ultrafilters which preserve countably many infinite meets (generalizing RasiowaSikorski) is used to pinpoint the mechanism of the Barwise proof in a way which bypasses the set theoretical elaborations.
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By
Strauss, Paul
It is well known that number theory can be interpreted in the usual set theories, e.g. ZF, NF and their extensions. The problem I posed for myself was to see if, conversely, a reasonably strong set theory could be interpreted in number theory. The reason I am interested in this problem is, simply, that number theory is more basic or more concrete than set theory, and hence a more concrete foundation for mathematics. A partial solution to the problem was accomplished by WTN in [2], where it was shown that a predicative set theory could be interpreted in a natural extension of pure number theory, PN, (i.e. classical firstorder Peano Arithmetic). In this paper, we go a step further by showing that a reasonably strong fragment of predicative set theory can be interpreted in PN itself. We then make an attempt to show how to develop predicative fragments of mathematics in PN.
If one wishes to know what is meant by “reasonably strong” and “fragment” please read on.
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By
Rijke, Maarten
1 Citations
In [6] Albert Visser shows that ILP completely axiomatizes all schemata about provability and relative interpretability that are provable in finitely axiomatized theories. In this paper we introduce a system called ILP^{ω} that completely axiomatizes the arithmetically valid principles of provability in and interpretability over such theories. To prove the arithmetical completeness of ILP^{ω} we use a suitable kind of tail models; as a byproduct we obtain a somewhat modified proof of Visser's completeness result.
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By
Maegaard, Bente; Perschke, Sergei
2 Citations
This article gives a general overview of the technical, scientific and philosophical character of the Eurotra machine translation program, outlines its developmental history and lists some plans for future work.
By
Mardaev, S. I.
A negative solution of the problem posed by Maksimova [5] is given. Two sequences of Superintuitionistic logics are axiomatized by using an analogy of the operation ω.
By
Booth, David
Just as nonwellfounded sets extend the usual sets of ZF, so do root reflexive propositional formulas extends the usual class of Boolean expressions. Though infinitary, these formulas are generated by finite patterns. They possess transition functions instead of truth values and have applications in electric circuit theory.
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By
Allegranza, Valerio; Krauwer, Steven; Steiner, Erich
Concluding remarks
With this brief exposition of the areas covered in this special double issue on Eurotra, we shall now conclude our introduction. We hope that the volume will achieve its goals, as outlined above, at least to some extent. Certainly, much more could be said about a wide range of topics which have been covered in the lifetime or the project so far. For instance, these article, mainly written by linguists, deliberately neglect the software implementation and environment aspects of the prototype Eurotra Translation System, as well as a number of peripheral tools and components of the system that are available to the user, such as lexical data bases, texthandling mechanisms and the like. The reader interested in aspects of this kind is referred to Raw et al. 1989 for a very brief introduction, and to the Eurotra software team at the Commission of the European Communities (DG XIII, Luxembourg) for more details. However, one goal that we do hope to come close to achieving is to give a fair overview of the Eurotra linguistic theory of translation and the mainstream and sideline formalisms expressing variant versions of it. If we have come anywhere near achieving that, our gratitude is due to the numerous Eurotra colleagues who have supported us in preparing this volume, and to the editor of this journal.
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By
Hansson, Sven Ove
70 Citations
The postulate of recovery is commonly regarded to be the intuitively least compelling of the six basic Gärdenfors postulates for belief contraction. We replace recovery by the seemingly much weaker postulate of coreretainment, which ensures that if x is excluded from K when p is contracted, then x plays some role for the fact that K implies p. Surprisingly enough, coreretainment together with four of the other Gärdenfors postulates implies recovery for logically closed belief sets. Reasonable contraction operators without recovery do not seem to be possible for such sets. Instead, however, they can be obtained for nonclosed belief bases. Some results on partial meet contractions on belief bases are given, including an axiomatic characterization and a nonvacuous extension of the AGM closure condition.
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By
Wojtylak, Piotr
2 Citations
We consider the notion of structural completeness with respect to arbitrary (finitary and/or infinitary) inferential rules. Our main task is to characterize structurally complete intermediate logics. We prove that the structurally complete extension of any pure implicational in termediate logic C can be given as an extension of C with a certain family of schematically denned infinitary rules; the same rules are used for each C. The cardinality of the family is continuum and, in the case of (the pure implicational fragment of) intuitionistic logic, the family cannot be reduced to a countable one. It means that the structurally complete extension of the intuitionistic logic is not countably axiomatizable by schematic rules.
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By
Skura, Tomasz
4 Citations
In Section 2 I give a criterion of decidability that can be applied to logics (i.e. Tarski consequence operators) without the finite model property. In Section 3 I study Łukasiewiczstyle refutation procedures as a method of obtaining decidability results.This method also proves to be more general than Harrop's criterion.
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By
Wiśniewski, Andrzej
6 Citations
The concept of erotetic argument is introduced. Two relations between sets of declarative sentences and questions are analysed; and two classes of erotetic arguments are characterized.
By
Kiriyama, Eiji; Ono, Hlroakira
10 Citations
This paper shows a role of the contraction rule in decision problems for the logics weaker than the intuitionistic logic that are obtained by deleting some or all of structural rules. It is wellknown that for such a predicate logic L, if L does not have the contraction rule then it is decidable. In this paper, it will be shown first that the predicate logic FL_{ec} with the contraction and exchange rules, but without the weakening rule, is undecidable while the propositional fragment of FL_{ec} is decidable. On the other hand, it will be remarked that logics without the contraction rule are still decidable, if our language contains function symbols.
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By
Thurmair, Gregor
This paper describes developments in the area of machine translation (MT). First, the paper gives an overview of developments in Germany in general; then, special problems are discussed. The system taken as an example is METAL (Machine Translation and Analysis of Natural Language), where recent development work has centered around two main topics. (i) Efforts have been made to make the system really multilingual. The GermantoEnglish prototype had to be expanded, some system components had to be readjusted, and additional problems had to be solved. Currently, analysis and synthesis components for German, English, French, Spanish, and Dutch are under development. All these languages use a common system kernel and a standard interface structure. (ii) The system had to be made userfriendly. This was an even more important task as, up to now, MT systems have not been well accepted by users. METAL tries to be more realistic, and also tries to support the main user interfaces in a much better way than has been done before. This is based on the conviction that there are several parameters which determine the real success of an MT system. It is not just translation quality which is decisive, it is also the integration of an MT system into the whole process of preparing and translating documents.
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By
Lehmann, Hubert; Guenthner, Franz
This paper deals with discourse analysis, with specific reference to the Linguistic and Logic Based Legal Expert System, LEX. In the LEX project we concentrated on a few arbitrarily selected court decisions, extracted the case descriptions, and then added the necessary background knowledge to our prototype expert system to analyze the case descriptions and to deduce the answers to some juridical questions. In this paper we present and comment on a typical discourse representation structure for an accident description in the corpus we studied.
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By
Schmauks, Dagmar; Wille, Michael
1 Citations
During facetoface communication, the dialog partners can see and hear each other. Each speaker produces a variety of phenomena parallel to speech. Some of them, e.g. intonation, are coded vocally, others are coded by motor responses (facial expression, gestures, etc.). If humancomputerinteraction (HCI) tries to mimic this situation, at least some nonverbal phenomena have to be integrated into natural language input and output. A multitude of new devices (mouse, joystick, touchscreens, etc.) have enabled this transition to multimodal HCI. Gestures which illustrate the content of the verbal message are especially suitable for integration into HCI. A relevant subset of them is pointing gestures, which specify elements of the visual context. They are performed frequently because their use shortens and simplifies the verbal output. As an illustration of these considerations, the NL dialog system XTRA (University of Saarbrücken) is presented. It allows reference to elements of a tax form by the combination of textual input and simulated pointing gestures. In order to explore the regularities of this “form deixis,” an experiment has been carried out within the framework of the XTRAproject. Furthermore, its results were taken for an evaluation of the currently used simulation technique.
Michael Wille is a researcher in the AI laboratory at the University of Saarbrücken. He has studied computer science, economics and cognitive psychology. he has worked on expert systems for SIEMENS (hardware diagnosis). His master's thesis (1989) was called “Evaluation and Extension of a Module for the Simulation and Analysis of Pointing Gestures.” His main research interest is multimedia interaction.
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By
Fiedler, Herbert
The importance of “reasoning” in law is pointed out. Law and jurisprudence belong to the “reasoningconscious” disciplines. Accordingly, there is a long tradition of logic in law. The specific methods of professional work in law are to be seen in close connection with legal reasoning. The advent of computers at first did not touch upon legal reasoning (or the professional work in law). At first computers could be used only for general auxiliary functions (e.g., numerical calculations in tax law). Gradually, the use of computers for auxiliary functions in law has become more specific and more sophisticated (e.g., legal information retrieval), touching more closely upon professional legal work. Moreover, renewed interest in AI has also fostered interest in AI in law, especially for legal expert systems. AI techniques can be used in support of legal reasoning. Yet until now legal expert systems have remained in the research and development stage and have hardly succeeded in becoming a profitable tool for the profession. Therefore it is hoped that the two lines of computer support, for auxiliary functions in law and for immediate support of legal reasoning, may unite in the future.
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By
Best, Heinrich
Historical social research has developed with the availability of computer technology and has received increasing acceptance with the use of PCs. Methodological standards created by empirical social research are transferred to historical matters. Major contributors are: extension of the factual basis of history, correction of misjudgements, opening of whole groups of mass sources to historical research and bridging the gap between theory and empirical knowledge in the science of history. It complements a philosophical historiography without replacing it. In Germany historical social research has developed outside the traditional university institutes; the Zentrum fur Historische Sozialforschung and Quantum e.V. in Cologne are the major institutions in this context.
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