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By
Lewin, Renato A.
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We prove that there are two involutions defined by monadic terms that characterize Monadic Algebras. We further prove that the variety of Monadic Algebras is the smallest variety of Interior Algebras where these involutions give rise to an interpretation from the variety of Bounded Distributive Lattices into it.
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By
Roy, Dev K.; Watnick, Richard
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3 Citations
The complexity of aII_{4} set of natural numbers is encoded into a linear order to show that the finite condensation of a recursive linear order can beII_{2}–II_{1}. A priority argument establishes the same result, and is extended to a complete classification of finite condensations iterated finitely many times.
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By
Krynicki, Michal
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The theorem to the effect that the languageL_{Δ} introduced in [2] is mutually interpretable with the first order language is proved. This yields several modeltheoretical results concerningL_{Δ}.
By
Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Sette, Antonio M. A.
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We obtain in this paper a representation of the formulae of extensions ofL_{ωω} by generalized quantifiers through functors between categories of firstorder structures and partial isomorphisms. The main tool in the proofs is the backandforth technique. As a corollary we obtain the Caicedo's version of Fraïssés theorem characterizing elementary equivalence for such languages. We also discuss informally some geometrical interpretations of our results.
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By
Sylvan, Richard; Costa, Newton
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An appropriately unprejudiced logical investigation of causation as a type of implication relation is undertaken. The implication delineated is bounded syntactically. The developing argument then leads to a very natural process analysis, which demonstrably captures the established syntactical features. Next relevantlybased semantics for the resulting logical theory are adduced, and requisite adequacy results delivered. At the end of the tour, further improvements are pointed out, and the attractive terrain beyond present developments is glimpsed.
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By
Ono, Hiroakira
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5 Citations
An intermediate predicate logicS_{+}^{n}
(n>0) is introduced and investigated. First, a sequent calculusGS_{n} is introduced, which is shown to be equivalent toS_{+}^{n}
and for which the cut elimination theorem holds. In § 2, it will be shown thatS_{+}^{n}
is characterized by the class of all linear Kripke frames of the heightn.
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By
Dishkant, Herman
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I dare say, a set is contranatural if some pair of its elements has a nonempty intersection. So, we consider only collections of disjoint nonempty elements and call them totalities. We propose the propositional logicTT, where a proposition letters some totality. The proposition is true if it letters the greatest totality. There are five connectives inTT: ∧, ∨, ∩, ⌉, # and the last is called plexus. The truth of σ # π means that any element of the totality σ has a nonempty intersection with any element of the totality π. An imbeddingG of the classical predicate logicCPL inTT is defined. A formulaf ofCPL is a classical tautology if and only ifG(f) is always true inTT. So, mathematics may be expounded inTT, without quantifiers.
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By
Venezky, Richard L.
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The Dictionary of Old English computing systems have provided access since the 1970s to a database of approximately three million running words. These systems, designed for a variety of machines and written in a variety of languages, have until recently been planned with computing center billing algorithms in mind. With personal workstations emphasis has shifted to building more elegant user interfaces and to providing the entire DOE database to editors around the world. While the shift from sequential files to random access files and the provision of extensive development tools have changed some of the design process, error checking and protection of the database against accidental intrusion have remained as central issues.
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By
Huron, David
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7 Citations
The results of a detailed study of errors in a musical database are presented. It is shown that the form of analytic processing employed may substantially magnify the effect of database errors so that very small error rates can produce very large errors in the analytic results. An equation is devised to assist in estimating the effect of an overall errorrate on arbitrary analytic measures derived from the database. Considering the potential for erroneous or misleading analytic results, it is recommended that scholars using computerbased methods should habitually calculate error rates associated with their analytic procedures, and ought to present an analysis of errors in tandem with their results in order to validate their interpretations.
Four methods of error detection are examined: manual proofreading, doubleentry method, programmed syntactic checking, and programmed heuristics. Significant differences were found in the thoroughness of different detection methods in uncovering all errors of a given type. The doubleentry method was found to be superior to all other methods of detection; the humanities scholar's traditional allegiance to manual proofreading was not supported by this study. Programmed methods of error detection were found to be fallible, but nonetheless useful.
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By
Weaver, George
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Among the complete ℵ_{0}categorical theories with finite nonlogical vocabularies, we distinguish three classes. The classification is obtained by looking at the number of bound variables needed to isolated complete types. In classI theories, all types are isolated by quantifier free formulas; in classII theories, there is a leastm, greater than zero, s.t. all types are isolated by formulas in no more thanm bound variables: and in classIII theories, for eachm there is a type which cannot be isolated inm or fewer bound variables. ClassII theories are further subclassified according to whether or not they can be extended to classI theories by the addition of finitely many new predicates. Alternative characterizations are given in terms of quantifier elimination and homogeneous models. It is shown that for each primep, the theory of infinite Abelian groups all of whose elements are of orderp is classI when formulated in functional constants, and classIII when formulated in relational constants.
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By
Croy, Marvin J.
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3 Citations
It is unfortunate that most forms of CAI either decrease or replace studentteacher interaction and rarely promote studentstudent interaction in a deliberate fashion. The project described here, however, aims at improving human interaction in a deductive logic course via the use of a proofchecking computer program. This program supports analyses of student performance which guide inclass instruction on a realtime basis. It is a widely held belief that individualization promotes effectiveness in teaching and that CAI promotes individualization. Some questions are raised about these beliefs, and the conclusion drawn is that the prospects for a computer technology that enhances rather than diminishes human interaction should be more vigorously explored. Ultimately, the efforts reported here are intended to show that the use of computers in education need not constitute a form of separating teachers from their students, but rather can provide information concerning student needs and can supply opportunities for addressing those needs both within and outside the classroom.
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By
Došen, Kosta
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42 Citations
The purpose of this paper is to connect the proof theory and the model theory of a family of propositional logics weaker than Heyting's. This family includes systems analogous to the Lambek calculus of syntactic categories, systems of relevant logic, systems related toBCK algebras, and, finally, Johansson's and Heyting's logic. First, sequentsystems are given for these logics, and cutelimination results are proved. In these sequentsystems the rules for the logical operations are never changed: all changes are made in the structural rules. Next, Hubertstyle formulations are given for these logics, and algebraic completeness results are demonstrated with respect to residuated latticeordered groupoids. Finally, model structures related to relevant model structures (of Urquhart, Fine, Routley, Meyer, and Maksimova) are given for our logics. These model structures are based on groupoids parallel to the sequentsystems. This paper lays the ground for a kind of correspondence theory for axioms of logics with implication weaker than Heyting's, a correspondence theory analogous to the correspondence theory for modal axioms of normal modal logics.
The first part of the paper, which follows, contains the first two sections, which deal with sequentsystems and Hubertformulations. The second part, due to appear in the next issue of this journal, will contain the third section, which deals with groupoid models.
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By
Thury, Eva M.
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This study focuses on the imagery of youth and old age in the plays of Euripides, especially the Suppliant Women, considering frequently used words in each play according to a formula developed by Guiraud. The study identifies a motif, the rejuvenation theme, an elaborate interaction between young and old, in the Suppliant Women and in: Alcestis, Heraclidae, Andromache, Hecabe, and Heracles. The difference between the use of neos (young, new) in the Suppliant Women and in the other plays is statistically significant. This word helps Euripides contrast two different kinds of youth: the fearful, rash, and animalistic (Theban); and that which has been properly schooled and led (Athenian). The greatest ground in the Suppliant Women for praising Athens is in her treatment of the young as a politically valuable force.
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By
Oppenheim, Rosa
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1 Citations
Mathematical models of style have focused on features which are easily quantifiable and, for computeraided analysis, easily identifiable by machines. Most such studies are based on frequency of occurrence of word counts, vocabulary items, or grammatical forms.
In this paper, we examine not the number of occurrences of a characteristic, but the pattern in which the characteristic occurs. For example, we hypothesize that the lengths of successive sentences are mathematically correlated and that the length of a sentence can be described, quantitatively, in terms of the lengths of previous sentences.
Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are traditionally used to describe correlated time series data. Under the assumption that the number of words in one sentence is correlated with the number of words per sentence in prior sentences, we develop ARIMA models for series in different works by the same author and comparable works by different authors (James Joyce: portions of Ulysses, and Dubliners; and Ernest Hemingway: portions of In Our Time). Problems of sampling from a literary text are discussed and results presented.
Although the performance of the models in predicting sentence length is only marginally better than using mean sentence length, the potential value of this technique in characterizing stylistic features, especially changes in style from the beginning of a piece to the end, is demonstrated.
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By
Barnard, David; Hayter, Ron; Karababa, Maria; Logan, George; McFadden, John
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13 Citations
There is wide agreement on the need for a markup standard for encoding literary texts. The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) seems to provide the best basis for such a standard. But two problems inhibit the acceptance of SGML for this purpose. (1) Computerassisted textual studies often require the maintenance of multiple views of a document's structure, but SGML is not designed to accommodate such views. (2) An SGMLbased standard would appear to entail the keyboarding of more markup than researchers are accustomed to, or are likely to accept. We discuss five ways of dealing with the first problem, and several ways of reducing the burden of markup. We conclude that the problem of maintaining multiple views can be surmounted, though with some difficulty, and that the markup required for an SGMLbased standard can be reduced to a level comparable to that of other markup schemes currently in use.
Ron Hayter is the Senior Software Developer of Software Exoterica Corporation, Ottawa, Canada.
Maria Karibaba obtained the M.Sc. degree in Computing and Information Science at Queen's University and returned to Greece.
George Logan is Head of the Department of English at Queen's University, Canada.
John McFadden is the President of Software Exoterica Corporation, Ottawa, Canada
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By
Holman, Eugene
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1 Citations
This paper describes FINNMORF, a computerized reference tool which immediately generates the full paradigms for virtually any Finnish lexical item which can be declined or conjugated. The output from the program may be easily redirected to a disk file or printer and used for individual study or the preparation of teaching materials. The FINNMORF program, written in compiled BASIC, exemplifies the potential of this programming language for computational linguistics.
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By
Wattenberg, Frank
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7 Citations
The purpose of this paper is to investigate some problems of using finite (or ^{*}finite) computational arguments and of the nonstandard notion of an infinitesimal. We will begin by looking at the canonical example illustrating the distinction between classical and constructive analysis, the Intermediate Value Theorem.
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By
Leth, Steven C.
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4 Citations
Two different equivalence relations on countable nonstandard models of the natural numbers are considered. Properties of a standard sequence A are correlated with topological properties of the equivalence classes of the transfer of A. This provides a method for translating results from analysis into theorems about sequences of natural numbers.
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By
Grabowski, Michal
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1 Citations
In this paper we study the status of the arithmetical completeness of dynamic logic. We prove that for finitistic proof systems for dynamic logic results beyond arithmetical completeness are very unlikely. The role of the set of natural numbers is carefully analyzed.
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By
Kozen, Dexter
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35 Citations
We prove a finite model theorem and infinitary completeness result for the propositional μcalculus. The construction establishes a link between finite model theorems for propositional program logics and the theory of wellquasiorders.
By
Leth, Steven C.
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5 Citations
A combinatorial result about internal subsets of ^{*}N is proved using the Lebesgue Density Theorem. This result is then used to prove a standard theorem about difference sets of natural numbers which provides a partial answer to a question posed by Erdös and Graham.
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By
Farkas, E. J.
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The purpose of this paper is to show that there exist starfinite treestructured sets in which the computations of parallel programs can be faithfully embedded, and that the theory of starfinite sets and relations therefore provides a new tool for the analysis of nondeterministic computations.
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By
Hirshfeld, Joram
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2 Citations
Ramsey type theorems are theorems of the form: “if certain sets are partitioned at least one of the parts has some particular property”. In its finite form, Ramsey's theory will ask how big the partitioned set should be to assure this fact. Proofs of such theorems usually require a process of multiple choice, so that this apparently “pure combinatoric” field is rich in proofs that use ideal guides in making the choices. Typically they may be ultrafilters or points in the compactification of the given set. It is, therefore, not surprising that nonstandard elements are much more natural guides in some of the proofs and in the general abstract treatment.
In Section 1 we start off with some very natural examples of Ramsey type exercises that illustrate our idea. In Section 2 we give a nonstandard proof of the infinite Ramsey theorem. Section 3 tries to do the same for Hindman's theorem, and points out, where nonstandard analysis must use some hard standard facts to make the proof go through.
In Section 4 we describe a general theory of “Ramsey Properties”, identifying a Ramsey Property with its nonstandard kernel in the enlargement.
In Section 5 nonstandard analysis is used again to deduce the finite Ramsey theorems from their infinite counterpart. More generally, a “compactness theorem” is proved to work for all theorems of this type.
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By
Osborn, F. E. Ann
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To structure a music education program in Canada based on the Hungarian model, Bartók's “grammatical principle” was adopted to define the musical characteristics of BritishCanadian children's traditional songs. A computeraided methodology analyzed a sample of singing games from a personal collection to identify 4phrase variants, and extracted and tabulated by phrasal position their common phrase patterns of equal length. Future programs will complete the phrase analysis and analyze other musical characteristics, grouping variants successively to determine the styles of the entire collection.
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By
Eynde, K.; Broeders, E.; Eggermont, C.; Vangilbergen, L.
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3 Citations
The research method applied by the authors, and outlined in introductory remarks, is determined by the assumptions of the Pronominal Approach, which has been conceived by K. van den Eynde and developed in collaboration with Cl. BlancheBenveniste. In this linguistic theory it is argued that syntatic structures in which a verbal nucleus is completed with merely pronominal elements function as classifiers for basic syntactic structures as such. More specifically, feature values that can be directly obtained from the observation of constructions of the first type (i. e. pronominal constructions) are said to characterize fully the syntactic properties of the second type of constructions whose lexical complexity often resists direct access to their syntactic features. In the first and second parts of the article, the authors set out to give evidence for the syntactic phenomena that control coordination byet (‘and’) andmais (‘but’), via the investigation of pronominal constructions. To that end, they introduce a system of feature categories and corresponding feature values, in terms of which ascertainments based on the observation of pronominal constructions can be formalized so as to make implementation possible. The resulting feature system, together with the rules governing the combination of feature values, is shown to reflect most accurately the complexities of the problem under consideration. The final part of the article considers more generally the implications, possibilities and advantages of the approach for the computational treatment of syntactic units with lexical items in Natural Language Processing.
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By
Nilsen, Don L. F.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Combs, Nathan H.
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1 Citations
Advanced natural language processing techniques may well lead to a major breakthrough in computer applications. Those working in artificial intelligence are seeking ways in which the computer can be made to emulate the ability of the human mind to handle language. This article illustrates the challenges of restructuring human semantic knowledge into computerusable forms. We discuss hierarchies, Venn diagrams, chainings, cycles, matrices, maps, networks, webs, hubs, and scripts, all of which can be used in our attempts to teach the computer to handle meaning and thereby speculate.
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By
Sigurd, Bengt; GawronskaWerngren, Barbara
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One may indicate the potentials of an MT system by stating what text genres it can process, e.g., weather reports and technical manuals. This approach is practical, but misleading, unless domain knowledge is highly integrated in the system. Another way to indicate which fragments of language the system can process is to state its grammatical potentials, or more formally, which languages the grammars of the system can generate. This approach is more technical and less understandable to the layman (customer), but it is less misleading, since it stresses the point that the fragments which can be translated by the grammars of a system need not necessarily coincide exactly with any particular genre. Generally, the syntactic and lexical rules of an MT system allow it to translate many sentences other than those belonging to a certain genre. On the other hand it probably cannot translate all the sentences of a particular genre. Swetra is a multilanguage MT system defined by the potentials of a formal grammar (standard referent grammar) and not by reference to a genre. Successful translation of sentences can be guaranteed if they are within a specified syntactic format based on a specified lexicon. The paper discusses the consequences of this approach (Grammatically Restricted Machine Translation, GRMT) and describes the limits set by a standard choice of grammatical rules for sentences and clauses, noun phrases, verb phrases, sentence adverbials, etc. Such rules have been set up for English, Swedish and Russian, mainly on the basis of familiarity (frequency) and computer efficiency, but restricting the grammar and making it suitable for several languages poses many problems for optimization. Sample texts—newspaper reports—illustrate the type of text that can be translated with reasonable success among Russian, English and Swedish.
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By
Csirmaz, László
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By extending the underlying data structure by new elements, we also extend the intput/output relation generated by a program i.e., no existing run is killed, and no new one lying entirely in the old structure is created. We investigate this stability property for the weak second order semantics derived from nonstandard time models. It turns out that the light face, i.e., parameterless collection principle always induces stable semantics, but the bold face one may be unstable. We give an example where an elementary extension kills a ‘bold face run’ showing also that the light face semantics is strictly weaker than the bold face one.
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By
Sain, Ildikó
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2 Citations
The main result of this paper belongs to the field of the comparative study of program verification methods as well as to the field called nonstandard logics of programs. We compare the program verifying powers of various wellknown temporal logics of programs, one of which is the Intermittent Assertions Method, denoted as Bur. Bur is based on one of the simplest modal logics called S5 or “sometime”logic. We will see that the minor change in this “background” modal logic increases the program verifying power of Bur. The change can be described either technically as replacing the “reflexive version” of S5 with an “irreflexive version”, or intuitively as using the modality “someothertime” instead of “sometime”. Some insights into the nature of computational induction and its variants are also obtained.
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By
Randall, Neil
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2 Citations
The authors of interactive fiction are beginning to demonstrate a concern for the literariness of their product. Literariness, as defined by Shklovskij and the Russian Formalists, is the quality of “making strange” that which is linguistically familiar, a quality Shklovskij termed ostranenie. By applying the principle of ostranenie, as well as other wellknown literary principles, to the most serious interactive fictions, we can determine if this new genre exhibits the features of literariness. A study of Mindwheel, Brimstone, Breakers, A Mind Forever Voyaging, Portal, and Trinity suggest that the literariness of interactive fiction comes out of its concern both for “making strange” what is familiar and for “making familiar” what is strange.
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By
Ephratt, Michal
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This paper describes a program (and a grammar) for carrying out the semantic phase of ‘rootpattern’ word formation in Hebrew. This is achieved by first automatically extracting semantic features of roots from a Hebrew thesaurus. Once the roots are reduced to featurevalue sets, a grammar is used to combine a specific root with a specific grammatical pattern. The result of the grammar operation yields the final set of semantic features and values for the word. Thus, the rootpattern words are not the minimal units of grammatical investigation. They are products of the grammar. In addition to the ability to automatically generate word meanings, the semantic information derived in this way can serve also for syntactic ambiguity resolution and automatic compilation of machineoriented dictionaries, thesauri etc. The method described here can also be used for treating affixation and thus be useful for a wide scope of languages, including English, Hebrew and Finnish.
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By
Morrill, Glyn; Bennett, Paul; Lau, Peter; Dunbar, George; Fedder, Lee; Frederking, Robert E.; Jones, Danny; White, John S.; Zähner, Christoph; Zähner, Christoph; Russell, Graham
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By
Méndez, José M.
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A prepositional logic S has the “Converse Ackermann Property” (CAP) if (A→B)→C is unprovable in S when C does not contain →. In “A RoutleyMeyer semantics for Converse Ackermann Property” (Journal of Philosophical Logic, 16 (1987), pp. 65–76) I showed how to derive positive logical systems with the CAP. There I conjectured that each of these positive systems were compatible with a socalled “semiclassical” negation. In the present paper I prove that this conjecture was right. Relational RoutleyMeyer type semantics are provided for each one of the resulting systems (the positive systems plus the semiclassical negation).
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By
Fitting, Melvin
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2 Citations
A generalization of conventional Horn clause logic programming is proposed in which the space of truth values is a pseudoBoolean or Heyting algebra, whose members may be thought of as evidences for propositions. A minimal model and an operational semantics is presented, and their equivalence is proved, thus generalizing the classic work of Van Emden and Kowalski.
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By
FattorosiBarnaba, M.; Cerrato, C.
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9 Citations
We go on along the trend of [2] and [1], giving an axiomatization of S4^{0} and proving its completeness and compactness with respect to the usual reflexive and transitive Kripke models. To reach this results, we use techniques from [1], with suitable adaptations to our specific case.
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By
Tokarz, Marek
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2 Citations
In this note two notions of meaning are considered and accordingly two versions of synonymy are defined, weaker and stronger ones. A new semantic device is introduced: a matrix is said to be pragmatic iff its algebra is in fact an algebra of meanings in the stronger sense. The new semantics is proved to be “universal enough” (Theorem 1), and it turns out to be in some sense a generalization of Wójcicki's referential semantics (Theorem 3).
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By
Prather, Ronald E.; Elliott, R. Stephen
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1 Citations
Most of the problems with existing computer musicological systems have to do with the lack of capability for capturing the important notion of musical structure. In the new language SML (AStructuredMusicalLanguage), this aspect is given foremost attention as a technique for encoding a musical score in a clear and vivid form. Musical structures are patterned after the control structures of Pascal, together with instrument representations modeled on the idea of a Pascal record type. A complete example of the SML encoding of a Schumann song is included.
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By
Sigurd, Bengt; GawronskaWerngren, Barbara
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One may indicate the potentials of an MT system by stating what text genres it can process, e.g., weather reports and technical manuals. This approach is practical, but misleading, unless domain knowledge is highly integrated in the system. Another way to indicate which fragments of language the system can process is to state its grammatical potentials, or more formally, which languages the grammars of the system can generate. This approach is more technical and less understandable to the layman (customer), but it is less misleading, since it stresses the point that the fragments which can be translated by the grammars of a system need not necessarily coincide exactly with any particular genre. Generally, the syntactic and lexical rules of an MT system allow it to translate many sentences other than those belonging to a certain genre. On the other hand it probably cannot translate all the sentences of a particular genre. Swetra is a multilanguage MT system defined by the potentials of a formal grammar (standard referent grammar) and not by reference to a genre. Successful translation of sentences can be guaranteed if they are within a specified syntactic format based on a specified lexicon. The paper discusses the consequences of this approach (Grammatically Restricted Machine Translation, GRMT) and describes the limits set by a standard choice of grammatical rules for sentences and clauses, noun phrases, verb phrases, sentence adverbials, etc. Such rules have been set up for English, Swedish and Russian, mainly on the basis of familiarity (frequency) and computer efficiency, but restricting the grammar and making it suitable for several languages poses many problems for optimization. Sample texts — newspaper reports — illustrate the type of text that can be translated with reasonable success among Russian, English and Swedish.
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By
Huang, Xiuming
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3 Citations
This paper concerns the resolution of lexical ambiguity in a machine translation environment. We describe the integration of principles of selection restrictions. Preference Semantics, and intelligent relaxation of constraints in handling lexical ambiguity. The approach differs from many previous MT systems in that it is more powerful than ‘brute force’ systems, while more realistic than systems that assume a large degree of coded encyclopedia information for ‘full understanding.’
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By
Bailin, Alan; Thomson, Philip
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3 Citations
This article describes the natural language processing techniques used in two computerassisted language instruction programs: VERBCON and PARSER. VERBCON is a templatetype program which teaches students how to use English verb forms in written texts. In the exercises verbs have been put into the infinitive, and students are required to supply appropriate verb forms. PARSER is intended to help students learn English sentence structure. Using a lexicon and production rules, it generates sentences and asks students to identify their grammatical parts. The article contends that only by incorporating natural language processing techniques can these programs offer a substantial number of exercises and at the same time provide students with informative feedback.
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By
Bunder, M. W.
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In the early thirties, Church developed predicate calculus within a system based on lambda calculus. Rosser and Kleene developed Arithmetic within this system, but using a Godelization technique showed the system to be inconsistent.
Alternative systems to that of Church have been developed, but so far more complex definitions of the natural numbers have had to be used. The present paper based on a system of illative combinatory logic developed previously by the author, does allow the use of the Church numerals. Given a new definition of equality all the Peanotype axioms of Mendelson except one can be derived. A rather weak extra axiom allows the proof of the remaining Peano axiom. Note. The illative combinatory logic used in this paper is similar to the logic employed in computer languages such as ML.
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By
Ephratt, Michal
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This paper describes a program (and a grammar) for carrying out the semantic phase of ‘rootpattern’ word formation in Hebrew. This is achieved by first automatically extracting semantic features of roots from a Hebrew thesaurus. Once the roots are reduced to featurevalue sets, a grammar is used to combine a specific root with a specific grammatical pattern. The result of the grammar operation yields the final set of semantic features and values for the word. Thus, the rootpattern words are not the minimal units of grammatical investigation. They are products of the grammar. In addition to the ability to automatically generate word meanings, the semantic information derived in this way can serve also for syntactic ambiguity resolution and automatic compilation of machineoriented dictionaries, thesauri etc. The method described here can also be used for treating affixation and thus be useful for a wide scope of languages, including English, Hebrew and Finnish.
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By
Boričić, Branislav R.
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We prove that every finitely axiomatizable extension of Heyting's intuitionistic logic has a corresponding cutfree Gentzentype formulation. It is shown how one can use this result to find the corresponding normalizable natural deduction system and to give a criterion for separability of considered logic. Obviously, the question how to obtain an effective definition of a sequent calculus which corresponds to a concrete logic remains a separate problem for every logic.
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By
Helgerson, Linda W.
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5 Citations
The conversion of all classical literature for the period of Homer in the 8th century B.C. through the 6th century A.D. into machinereadable format — designated the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae project — was the impetus behind the use of classical literature in a variety of electronic research environments. Initially targeted for mainframe storage and retrieval, the data is now also being published and distributed on CDROM for use with microcomputers. Two such projects, the TLG Project at the University of CaliforniaTrvine and the Isocrates Project at Brown University's IRIS Center are described as well as other CDROM projects for the storage and dissemination of literature in the humanities and classical research. Various CDROM systems are also described, including the Ibycus Scholarly Computer.
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By
Potter, Rosanne G.
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3 Citations
Currently most literary critics reject the use of science and technology to gain information about texts, while most computer textanalysts have become absorbed in science and technology and forgotten they were seeking information about literature. Whether these two trends will continue into the 1990's remains to be seen; that they explain a good deal about the world we work in now can, I think, be demonstrated. This essay looks at the questions of what literary computing could offer to literary critics, why computer users get lost in scientific jargon, what happens when text becomes input and, most importantly, what happens when text becomes output; it closes with a discussion of why the synthesis will be so difficult.
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By
Hausser, Roland
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This paper presents a formal account of the grammar system described informally in the previous issue of CaT. LAgrammar is proven to generate all and only the recursive languages. The classes of regular, contextfree, and contextsensitive languages are reconstructed in LAgrammar. The relation between LAgrammar and associated parsers and generators is shown to be ‘type transparent’, and illustrated with examples. Finally, differences between LAgrammar and Finite State Automata, RTNs, ATNs, and Predictive Analyzers are explained.
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By
Brady, Ross T.
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3 Citations
We present an algebraicstyle of semantics, which we call a “content semantics”, for quantified relevant logics based on the weak system BBQ. We show soundness and completeness for all quantificational logics extending BBQ and also treat reduced modelling for all systems containing BB^{d}Q. The key idea of content semantics is that true entailments A→B are represented under interpretation I as content containments, i.e. I(A)⩽I(B) (or, the content of A contains that of B). This is opposed to the truthfunctional way which represents true entailments as truthpreservations over all setups (or worlds), i.e. (VaεK) (if I(A, a) = T then I(B, a)= T).
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By
Carter, N. P.; Bacon, R. A.; Messenger, T.
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11 Citations
Material published on the subject of Acquisition, Representation and Reconstruction of printed music by computer is reviewed.
The paper is divided into three sections. 1. Acquisition covers music data entry by automatic pattern recognition, directlyconnected keyboard, soundtrack analysis, purposebuilt hardware and other, compromise, methods. 2. Representation deals with Music Representational Languages (with particular reference to DARMS, MUSTRAN and ALMA), their background, structure, software support, and associated problems concerning score reconstruction. 3. Reconstruction discusses briefly the hardware available for computerized printing of sheet music.
An Appendix is included which lists a representative selection of the most significant computer systems for printing music. The Bibliography contains nearly 200 references from diverse publications.
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By
Somers, Harold; Hirakawa, Hideki; Miike, Seiji; Amano, Shinya
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This paper concerns the treatment, in the context of machine translation, of English complex nominal groups which can be considered as nominalizations of verb phrases. We discuss the fact that many styles of English prose which are suitable for translation by machine typically favor the use of nominal rather than verbal syntagms. But such constructions when translated literally are often considered unnatural. The general problem is described in detail, with examples. The more specific problem of recognizing nominalizations and analyzing their structure is considered. How and where to achieve the required syntactic ‘transformation’ is discussed, and exemplified.
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By
Nakamura, Junichi; Tsujii, Junichi; Nagao, Makoto
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GRADE, a software environment for machine translation is described. It has been developed for the Mu machine translation project, which was supported by the Science & Technology Agency of the Japanese Government. GRADE consists of 3 components: (1) a grammar writing language based on flexible treetotree transformation rules with a control mechanism and an interpreter; (2) software tools for constructing and maintaining grammar rules; and (3) software tools for developing dictionary databases which are based on the concept ofneutral dictionary. In this paper, these software packages are discussed from the viewpoint of the development of a large scale machine translation system.
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