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By
Jankowski, Andrzej W.
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5 Citations
This paper is closely related to investigations of abstract properties of basic logical notions expressible in terms of closure spaces as they were begun by A. Tarski (see [6]). We shall prove many properties of ωconjunctive closure spaces (X is ωconjunctive provided that for every two elements of X their conjunction in X exists). For example we prove the following theorems:
1.
For every closed and proper subset of an ωconjunctive closure space its interior is empty (i.e. it is a boundary set).
2.
If X is an ωconjunctive closure space which satisfies the ωcompactness theorem and
$$\hat P$$
[X] is a meetdistributive semilattice (see [3]), then the lattice of all closed subsets in X is a Heyting lattice.
3.
A closure space is linear iff it is an ωconjunctive and topological space.
4.
Every continuous function preserves all conjunctions.
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By
Benthem, Johan
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4 Citations
Providing a possible worlds semantics for a logic involves choosing a class of possible worlds models, and setting up a truth definition connecting formulas of the logic with statements about these models. This scheme is so flexible that a danger arises: perhaps, any (reasonable) logic whatsoever can be modelled in this way. Thus, the enterprise would lose its essential ‘tension’. Fortunately, it may be shown that the socalled ‘incompletenessexamples’ from modal logic resist possible worlds modelling, even in the above wider sense. More systematically, we investigate the interplay of truth definitions and model conditions, proving a preservation theorem characterizing those types of truth definition which generate the minimal modal logic.
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By
Segerberg, Krister
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3 Citations
We consider a quantifierfree language in which there are terms as well as formulas. The propositionforming propositional operators are the usual ones, and the termmaking term operators are the usual lattice theoretical ones. In addition there is a formulamaking term operator, “does”. We study a new logic in which “does α” is claimed to approximate some features of the informal concept “the agent performs the action α”.
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By
Hawranek, Jacek; Zygmunt, Jan
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1 Citations
In this paper being a sequel to our [1] the logic with seminegation is chosen as an example to elucidate some basic notions of the semantics for sentential calculi. E.g., there are shown some links between the Post number and the degree of complexity of a sentential logic, and it is proved that the degree of complexity of the sentential logic with seminegation is 2^{ℵ}0. This is the first known example of a logic with such a degree of complexity. The results of the final part of the paper cast a new light on the scope of the Kripkestyle semantics in comparison to the matrix semantics.
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By
Czelakowski, Janusz
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5 Citations
The present paper is thought as a formal study of distributive closure systems which arise in the domain of sentential logics. Special stress is laid on the notion of a Cfilter, playing the role analogous to that of a congruence in universal algebra. A sentential logic C is called filter distributive if the lattice of Cfilters in every algebra similar to the language of C is distributive. Theorem IV.2 in Section IV gives a method of axiomatization of those filter distributive logics for which the class Matr (C)_{prime}of Cprime matrices (models) is axiomatizable. In Section V, the attention is focused on axiomatic strengthenings of filter distributive logics. The theorems placed there may be regarded, to some extent, as the matrix counterparts of Baker's wellknown theorem from universal algebra [9, § 62, Theorem 2].
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By
Wasilewska, Anita
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1 Citations
We use here the notions and results from algebraic theory of programs in order to give a new proof of the decidability theorem for Suszko logic SCI (Theorem 3).
We generalize the method used in the proof of that theorem in order to prove a more general fact that any prepositional logic which admits a cutfree Gentzen type formalization is decidable (Theorem 6).
We establish also the relationship between the Suszko Logic SCI, onetoone Gentzen type formalizations and deterministic and algorithmic regular languages (Remark 2 and Theorem 7, respectively).
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By
Benthem, Johan; Pearce, David
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5 Citations
Of the various notions of reduction in the logical literature, relative interpretability in the sense of Tarskiet al. [6] appears to be the central one. In the present note, this syntactic notion is characterized semantically, through the existence of a suitable reduction functor on models. The latter mathematical condition itself suggests a natural generalization, whose syntactic equivalent turns out to be a notion of interpretability quite close to that of Ershov [1], Szczerba [5] and Gaifman [2].
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By
Gerla, Giangiacomo; Vaccaro, Virginia
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We propose a first order modal logic, theQS4Elogic, obtained by adding to the wellknown first order modal logicQS4 arigidity axiom schemas:A → □A, whereA denotes a basic formula. In this logic, thepossibility entails the possibility of extending a given classical first order model. This allows us to express some important concepts of classical model theory, such as existential completeness and the state of being infinitely generic, that are not expressibile in classical first order logic. Since they can be expressed in
$$L_{\omega _1 \omega } $$
logic, we are also induced to compare the expressive powers ofQS4E and
$$L_{\omega _1 \omega } $$
. Some questions concerning the power of rigidity axiom are also examined.
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By
Meyer, Robert K.; Giambrone, Steve; Brady, Ross T.
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7 Citations
A major question for the relevant logics has been, “Under what conditions is Ackermann's ruleγ from A ∨B andA to inferB, admissible for one of these logics?” For a large number of logics and theories, the question has led to an affirmative answer to theγ problem itself, so that such an answer has almost come to be expected for relevant logics worth taking seriously. We exhibit here, however, another large and interesting class of logicsroughly, the Boolean extensions of theW — free relevant logics (and, precisely, the wellbehaved subsystems of the 4valued logicBN4) — for which γ fails.
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By
Renardel, Gerard R.; Lavalette
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2 Citations
After a discussion of the different treatments in the literature of vacuous descriptions, the notion of descriptor is slightly generalized to function descriptor
, so as to form partial functions
which satisfy
$$\forall \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {x} z\left( {z = \varphi \overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {x} \leftrightarrow \forall y\left( {A\left( {\overset{\lower0.5em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup}$}} {x} ,y} \right) \leftrightarrow y = z} \right)} \right)$$
. We use (intuitionistic, classical or intermediate) logic with existence predicate, as introduced by D. S. Scott, to handle partial functions, and prove that adding function descriptors to a theory based on such a logic is conservative. For theories with quantification over functions, the situation is different: there the addition of
yields new theorems in the
free fragment, but an axiomatisation is easily given. The proofs are syntactical.
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By
Božić, Milan; Došen, Kosta
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33 Citations
Kripkestyle models with two accessibility relations, one intuitionistic and the other modal, are given for analogues of the modal systemK based on Heyting's prepositional logic. It is shown that these two relations can combine with each other in various ways. Soundness and completeness are proved for systems with only the necessity operator, or only the possibility operator, or both. Embeddings in modal systems with several modal operators, based on classical propositional logic, are also considered. This paper lays the ground for an investigation of intuitionistic analogues of systems stronger thanK. A brief survey is given of the existing literature on intuitionistic modal logic.
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By
Sendlewski, Andrzej
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14 Citations
We examine some extensions of the constructive propositional logic with strong negation in the setting of varieties of
$$\mathcal{N}$$
lattices. The main aim of the paper is to give a description of all pretabular, primitive and preprimitive varieties of
$$\mathcal{N}$$
lattices.
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By
Burghardt, Wolfram
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2 Citations
Conclusion
From the language teacher's point of view, authoring languages and systems have always had two major drawbacks: flexibility and simplicity of use seemed to exclude each other, and features specific to language instruction were not included in the design. COMET's template collection with its variants for individual languages attempts to deal with these problems. The present package of highutility programs has proven its worth in a university context by making it possible to createfullyear language courses at relatively modest cost. Since a lesson of five exercises, containing from 10 to 20 questions each, can be input by a careful typist in one working day, the term “development” has once again become synonymous with the creative process of designing pedagogic material.
Future work will concentrate on incorporating user suggestions for improvement and creating new, specialized patterns to enhance the methodological versatility of the system.
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By
Smith, Charles R.; Kiefer, Kathleen E.; Gingrich, Patricia S.
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Conclusion
During its first three years of use at CSU, thewriter's workbench system enjoyed such success with students, faculty, teaching assistants, and administrators that the project now includes the entire composition program—basic, college, and advanced writing, more than 4000 students per year. Faculty in the College of Business have adaptedworkbench for the needs of their students. Faculty in the Intensive English program have adapted it for international students learning English. As the result of a slight increase in tuition, the English Department's Center for ComputerAssisted Writing is now free to all composition students. As the project continues to expand, the laboratory will become a textualanalysis and writing center, soon CSU hopes, open at no charge to all students writing papers for any instructor on campus who agrees to spend lecture, office or grading time helping students with writing problems.
Programs for composition instruction like theworkbench now give writers new power to learn by bringing even the seemingly esoteric and difficult points of style and diction directly to bear on the writer's text. Our experience and that of students at CSU suggest that computers and software will improve the way we write, the way we learn to write, and the way we teach writing.
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By
Ager, Tryg A.
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3 Citations
Conclusion
Computerassisted instruction in philosophy has been successful in both supplementary and primary teaching applications. The programs used in computerassisted instruction in philosophy are sophisticated, have proved to be acceptable over a long term, and embody aspects of fundamental research and knowledge in philosophy. The computerassisted instruction effort in collegelevel philosophy has not been, nor is it likely to be, dominated by the simpler testandbranch methods made possible by courseware authoring systems. The efforts in philosophy described in this paper provide a sound basis for forming expectations of how computers will affect college teaching in the future.
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By
Watson, Deryn M.
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Conclusions
The Computers in the Curriculum Project has developed a clear philosophy and model for operation by involving teachers, programmers and curriculum specialists in the investigation and development of CAL materials. It has been a valuable exercise to test and extend this work into a new discipline area. Many related issues, however, need to be addressed:
how is CAL currently perceived and used in the classroom?
what sort of classroom organization fosters good CAL?
what pressures are created by CAL on an already crowded discipline syllabus?
how successful is CAL at fostering particular styles of learning?
All enquiries must extend beyond evaluating classroom use of materials. The Project also wishes to address itself to the growing relationship between CAL and the moving curriculum. As the potential of CAL and Information Technology is increasingly understood, will the curriculum move in directions not hitherto envisaged or possible? The relationship between education and the new technology it seeks to embrace will be a fruitful area of exploration throughout the 1980s.
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By
Burton, Dolores; Blockley, R. C.; Brahney, Kathleen J.; Brush, Craig B.; Farina, Luciano F.; Greenberg, Nathan A.; Houston, John Porter; Metzger, Michael; Rorick, William C.; Versluis, Edward B.; Raben, Joseph
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By
Bunder, M. W.
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In positive logic the negation of a propositionA is defined byA ⊃X whereX is some fixed proposition. A number of standard properties of negation, includingreductio ad absurdum, can then be proved, but not the law of noncontradiction so that this forms a paraconsistent logic. Various stronger paraconsistent logics are then generated by putting in particular propositions forX. These propositions range from true through contingent to false.
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By
Smolenov, Hristo
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1 Citations
The homogeneity of time (i.e. the fact that there are no privileged moments) underlies a fundamental symmetry relating to the energy conservation law. On the other hand the obvious asymmetry between past and future, expressed by the metaphor of the “arrow of time” or “flow of time” accounts for the irreversibility of what happens. One takes this for granted but the conceptual tension it creates against the background of time's presumed homogeneity calls for an explanation of temporal becoming. Here, it is approached with the help of a claim to the effect that the instant (moment) itself has a structure isomorphic to that of time as a whole. Then the asymmetry of past and future in regard to temporal becoming is associated with the internal structure of the very moment, and not with external relations between different moments of time. In this paper ideas of ancient atomism and contemporary dialectics are brought together. It is for the sake of a contrast to what is known as logical atomism that I choose to call this view dialectical atomism. The latter admits dialectical contradictions and, so far as the logical status of contradictions is concerned, bears reference to paraconsistent logics. In the paper there is an outline of a method of converting any consistent axiomatic formal system into a paraconsistent theory.
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By
Jennings, R. E.; Schotch, P. K.
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10 Citations
It is argued that the preservation of truth by an inference relation is of little interest when premiss sets are contradictory. The notion of a level of coherence is introduced and the utility of modal logics in the semantic representation of sets of higher coherence levels is noted. It is shown that this representative role cannot be transferred to first order logic via frame theory since the modal formulae expressing coherence level restrictions are not first order definable. Finally, an inference relation, calledyielding, is introduced which is intermediate between the coherence preservingforcing relation introduced elsewhere by the authors and the coherence destroying, inference relation of classical logic.
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By
Brady, Ross T.
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10 Citations
The paper essentially shows that the paraconsistent logicDR satisfies the depth relevance condition. The systemDR is an extension of the systemDK of [7] and the nontriviality of a dialectical set theory based onDR has been shown in [3]. The depth relevance condition is a strengthened relevance condition, taking the form: If ⊢_{DR} A→B thenA andB share a variable at the same depth, where the depth of an occurrence of a subformulaB in a formulaA is roughly the number of nested ‘→’'s required to reach the occurrence ofB inA. The method of proof is to show that a model structureM consisting of {M_{0}, M_{1}, ..., M_{ω}}, where theM_{i}^{′}
s are all characterized by Meyer's 6valued matrices (c. f, [2]), satisfies the depth relevance condition. Then, it is shown thatM is a model structure for the systemDR.
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By
Arruda, Ayda I.; Costa, Newton C. A.
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4 Citations
In this paper we study the systemsP andP^{*} (see Arruda and da Costa,O paradoxo de CurryMoh ShawKwei, Boletim da Sociedade Matemātica de São Paulo 18 (1966)) and some related systems. In the last section, we prove that certain set theories havingP andP^{*} as their underlying logics are nontrivial.
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By
Slaney, John K.
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20 Citations
I note that the logics of the “relevant” group most closely tied to the research programme in paraconsistency are those without the contraction postulate(A→.A→B)→.A→B and its close relatives. As a move towards gaining control of the contractionfree systems I show that they are prime (that wheneverA ∨B is a theorem so is eitherA orB). The proof is an extension of the metavaluational techniques standardly used for analogous results about intuitionist logic or the relevant positive logics.
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By
Alves, Elias H.
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4 Citations
The object of this paper is to show how one is able to construct a paraconsistent theory of models that reflects much of the classical one. In other words the aim is to demonstrate that there is a very smooth and natural transition from the model theory of classical logic to that of certain categories of paraconsistent logic. To this end we take an extension of da Costa'sC_{1}^{=}
(obtained by adding the axiom ⌝⌝A ↔A) and prove for it results which correspond to many major classical model theories, taken from Shoenfield [5]. In particular we prove counterparts of the theorems of ŁośTarski and ChangŁośSuszko, CraigRobinson and the Beth definability theorem.
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By
Błaszczuk, Jerzy J.
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In [8] Jaśkowski defined by means of an appropriate interpretation a paraconsistent calculusD_{2}. In [9] J. Kotas showed thatD_{2} is equivalent to the calculusM(S5) whose theses are exactly all formulasa such thatMa is a thesis ofS5. The papers [11], [7], [3], and [4] showed that interesting paraconsistent calculi could be obtained using modal systems other thanS5 and modalities other thanM. This paper generalises the above work. LetA be an arbitrary modality (i.e. string ofM's,L's and negation signs). Then theAextension of a set of formulasX is {α¦Aα ε X}}. Various properties ofAextensions of normal modal systems are examined, including a problem of their axiomatizability
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By
Priest, Graham
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5 Citations
This paper argues for tlie claims that a) a natural language such as English is semanticaly closed b) semantic closure implies inconsistency. A corollary of these is that the semantics of English must be paraconsistent. The first part of the paper formulates a definition of semantic closure which applies to natural languages and shows that this implies inconsistency. The second section argues that English is semeantically closed. The preceding discussion is predicated on the assumption that there are no truth value gaps. The next section of the paper considers whether the possibility of these makes any difference to the substantive conclusions of the previous sections, and argues that it does not. The crux of the preceding arguments is that none of the consistent semantical accounts that have been offered for solving the semantical paradoxes is a semantic ofEnglish. The final section of the paper produces a general argument as to why this must always be the case.
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By
Carnielli, Walter Alexandre; Alcantara, Luiz Paulo
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5 Citations
The prepositional calculiC_{n}, 1 ⩽n ⩽ ω introduced by N.C.A. da Costa constitute special kinds of paraconsistent logics. A question which remained open for some time concerned whether it was possible to obtain a Lindenbaum's algebra forC_{n}. C. Mortensen settled the problem, proving that no equivalence relation forC_{n}. determines a nontrivial quotient algebra.
The concept of da Costa algebra, which reflects most of the logical properties ofC_{n}, as well as the concept of paraconsistent closure system, are introduced in this paper.
We show that every da Costa algebra is isomorphic with a paraconsistent algebra of sets, and that the closure system of all filters of a da Costa algebra is paraconsistent.
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By
Tennant, Neil
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12 Citations
This paper treats entailment as a subrelation of classical consequence and deducibility. Working with a Gentzen setsequent system, we define an entailment as a substitution instance of a valid sequent all of whose premisses and conclusions are necessary for its classical validity. We also define a sequent Proof as one in which there are no applications of cut or dilution. The main result is that the entailments are exactly the Provable sequents. There are several important corollaries. Every unsatisfiable set is Provably inconsistent. Every logical consequence of a satisfiable set is Provable therefrom. Thus our system is adequate for ordinary mathematical practice. Moreover, transitivity of Proof fails upon accumulation of Proofs only when the newly combined premisses are inconsistent anyway, or the conclusion is a logical truth. In either case Proofs that show this can be effectively determined from the Proofs given. Thus transitivity fails where it least matters — arguably, where it ought to fail! We show also that entailments hold by virtue of logical form insufficient either to render the premisses inconsistent or to render the conclusion logically true. The Lewis paradoxes are not Provable. Our system is distinct from Anderson and Belnap's system of first degree entailments, and Johansson's minimal logic. Although the Curry set paradox is still Provable within naive set theory, our system offers the prospect of a more sensitive paraconsistent reconstruction of mathematics. It may also find applications within the logic of knowledge and belief.
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By
Mortensen, Chris
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6 Citations
A typical theorem of conaexive logics is Aristotle's Thesis(A), ∼(A→∼A).A cannot be added to classical logic without producing a trivial (Postinconsistent) logic, so connexive logics typically give up one or more of the classical properties of conjunction, e.g.(A & B)→A, and are thereby able to achieve not only nontriviality, but also (negation) consistency. To date, semantical modellings forA have been unintuitive. One task of this paper is to give a more intuitive modelling forA in consistent logics. In addition, while inconsistent but nontrivial theories, and inconsistent nontrivial logics employing prepositional constants (for which the rule of uniform substitution US fails), have both been studied extensively within the paraconsistent programme, inconsistent nontrivial logics (closed under US) do not seem to have been. This paper gives sufficient conditions for a logic containingA to be inconsistent, and then shows that there is a class of inconsistent nontrivial logics all containingA. A second semantical modelling forA in such logics is given. Finally, some informal remarks about the kind of modellingA seems to require are made.
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By
Routley, Richard
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6 Citations
Americanplan semantics with 4 values 1, 0, { {1, 0}} {{}}, interpretable as True, False, Both and Neither, are furnished for a range of logics, including relevant affixing systems. The evaluation rules for extensional connectives take a classical form: in particular, those for negation assume the form 1 ∈ τ(∼A, a) iff 0 ε τ (A, a) and 0 ∈ τ (∼A, a) iff 1 ∈ τ (A, a), so eliminating the star function *, on which much criticism of relevant logic semantics has focussed. The cost of these classical features is a further relation (or operation), required in evaluating falsity assignments of implication formulae.
Two styles of 4 valued relational semantics are developed; firstly a semantics using notions of double truth and double validity for basic relevant systemB and some extensions of it; and secondly, since the first semantics makes heavy weather of validating negation principles such as Contraposition, a reduced semantics using more complex implicational rules for relevant systemC and various of its extensions. To deal satisfactorily with elite systemsR,E andT, however, further complication is inevitable; and a relation of mateship (suggested by the Australian plan) is introduced to permit crossover from 1 to 0 values and vice versa.
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By
Brown, Gretchen P.
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In recent years, it has come to be widely accepted that linguistic and situational context must be used in understanding an utterance. It is not at all clear, however, how to represent such contextual information or what its precise role in the understanding process is. In fact, even the very nature of context remains problematic. In this paper, we look at taskoriented dialogue^{2} and propose some initial answers to these questions. Our answers take the form of several distinctions and structures, from which we draw some broad implications. The reader is cautioned that we intend our observations to be suggestive rather than in any way exhaustive. (See, for example, Grosz [4] for a different, but complementary, perspective on this problem.)
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By
Dijk, Teun A.
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Dialogues are verbal interaction sequences performed among language users. In order to be able to adequately accomplish their respective actions which constitute a dialogue, these language users must ‘go through’ a number of highly complex cognitive processes. It is the aim of this paper to briefly discuss some of the properties of the processes and representations involved in the cognitive management of dialogues.
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By
Păun, Gheorghe
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We discuss the possibility of modelling the dialouge as a system of action in the sense of [6], pondering on the linguistic formalization of the rules governing the correct development of the process and their relationships with the type of the language determined.
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By
Schank, Roger C.
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My aim here is to attempt to determine some of the rules that may legitimately be used for the process of response creation in a conversational setting. My assumption is that people bring a great deal of background information and rules about how to interpret what someone really means to the conversational setting. The process of communication is extremely complex, hence it is possible to make many different responses to a sentence. Also, sometimes the very act of not taking one of these options can be a statement in itself. Thus a large part of the conversational process takes place under the surface of the actual conversation. Our task, then, in trying to spell out the rules that people use in conversing, is to respond to all of what is going on, rather than solely to what is going on at the surface.
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By
Eco, Umberto
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Any semiotic approach (cf. Eco. 1976)^{1} should distinguish between a theory of codes and a theory of sign production, that is between a theory of signification and a theory of communication. In other words it is indispensable to distinguish between the criteria of organization of the cultural encyclopedia (a merely intensional system of meaning postulates) and the various phenomena of communicational interaction (among which there is the extensional use of languages, that is, the use of languages in order to designate actual or possible states of the world).
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By
Marcus, Solomon
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1 Citations
Our aim in the present paper is to analyze diplomatic communication from the viewpoint of a very comprehensive representation of the communication process. This representation will be obtained by a suitable combination of representations of this process due to Claude Shannon (the father of Information Theory), Roman Jakobson (with his wellknown sixcomponentsscheme of the communication process) and Colin Cherry (the famous specialist in Communication Engineering). We will obtain ten components of the communication process: the addresser, the addressee, the sender (or the transmitter), the receiver, the message, the referent (or the context), the channel, the code, the noise and the observer, with ten corresponding communicational functions: the expressive, the conative, the coding, the decoding, the poetic, the referential, the phatic, the metalinguistic, the noise function and the observer function. Each of these ten communicational functions deserves a special investigation. In the present paper, we accomplish this task only for some of them, a further paper being envisaged in order to continue this research. Although it is difficult to make a general hierarchy of these functions, our claim is that the most important communicational function, when dealing with diplomatic communication, is the phatic function. Thus, in some respect, diplomatic communication is similar to communication with children, where the phatic function has priority with respect to all other communicational functions.
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By
Sass, Louis A.
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1 Citations
The form of psychopathology which has probably occasioned the most extensive study of thought and language is schizophrenia. The deviant and sometimes bizarre ways in which such patients use language are among their most striking symptoms, and it has long been orthodox to locate the core of their symptomatic constellation in disorders of cognition. In recent decades, the interest in thought and language has extended beyond the study of the patients themselves to the study of other family members and of the family conceptualized as a system. The examination of forms of thinking and language has subsequently come to be central not just to issues involving diagnosis and the interpretation of symptoms but also to the attempt to understand the etiology of the illness. This tendency is exemplified in the research by Margaret Singer and Lyman Wynne concerning the communication patterns of parents of schizophrenics, probably the most influential and empirically best supported work concerning environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia.
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By
Harrah, David
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3 Citations
Message theory is concerned with directed messages, the messages that are the units of rational communication. In this paper we present an introductory sketch of message theory and show to what extent it can provide a semantics for dialogue. At first glance it might appear from the description given below that message theory provides only for the semantics, and indeed only for a few of the extensional aspects of the semantics. It should become clear, however, that the messagetheoretic framework provides for many possibilities beyond those explicitly mentioned in this paper — possibilities for both the semantics and the pragmatics of dialogue.
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By
Jakobson, Roman; LübbeGrothues, Grete
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1 Citations
Hölderlin, who had already suffered schizophrenic attacks, became ill in 1802, i.e., in his thirtysecond year — according to medical opinion, “with an acute schizophrenic psychosis.”^{1} Schelling described him in a letter to Hegel of July 11, 1803 as “with his mind completely shattered” and, although “still to a certain degree capable” of a few more literary works, “otherwise in a state of total oblivion.”^{2} In August 1806, Hölderlin’s mother received a letter from his close friend, Isaak Sinclair, reporting that it was no longer possible that “my unhappy friend, whose madness has reached an advanced stage, remain any longer … in Homburg” and “that his continued freedom could even become dangerous to the public.”^{3} After a few agonizing months in a Tübingen asylum, the ill man, in keeping with his poetic premonition, remained for an entire “Hälfte des Lebens” [Half of One’s life] “Weh mir, wo nehm ich, wenn // Es Winter ist, die Blumen”[Alas, where shall I find, when // It is winter, the flowers]^{4} in the house of a Tübingen carpenter, Ernst Zimmer, “given lodgings and care” until the end of his life [1843 — Trans.]. According to the reminiscences of the pastor Max Effert (published in 1849), “the unhappy poet Hölderlin,” the inhabitant of the little tower room in the carpenter’s house near the old animal pen, “wandered … to and fro” “until a few years ago, out of his mind, engaged in an eternally confused conversation with himself.”^{5}
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By
Hintikka, Jaakko
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2 Citations
In an earlier paper, I have defined certain dialogical games consisting mostly of questions and answers.^{1} They are games in what is intended to be the sense employed in the mathematical theory of games. From this vantage point, the definitions so far offered are incomplete, however, in several respects, especially in that the payoffs are left partly undetermined. It is my purpose in this paper to show how the payoffs can be determined somewhat more fully and indicate what theoretical considerations the determination of the payoffs depends on.
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