Considering the important influence of longtime (150 day) moromi fermentation and heat treatment on the aroma formation of traditional Chinese-type soy sauce (TCSS), volatile compounds in samples taken from different stages of moromi fermentation and heat treatment were analyzed by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that a total of 76 volatile compounds were identified in all the samples, and most of the volatile compounds were common. During 150 day of moromi fermentation, relative contents of acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, esters, and furan(one)s along with all the sensory attributes of acidic, alcoholic, fruity, caramel-like, smoky, and malty changed greatly. Notably, relative contents of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones along with the sensory intensities of alcoholic, caramel-like, and smoky of heated sample (80°C/60 min) decreased markedly, whereas there were slight increases in relative contents of furan(one)s, phenols, and sulfur-containing compounds of it. Long-time moromi fermentation and heat treatment have significant influence on the formation and relative contents of volatile compounds in TCSS, whereas changes in volatile compounds and their relative contents of the samples were responsible for the differences in sensory attributes.