In order to design roof bolting systems safely and economically, it is essential to understand the flexural behaviour of the immediate roof. Based on the strata sequence, the strata in the immediate roof are divided into three types. The flexural behaviour of the three strata types are investigated in terms of the following effects: roof span, horizontal stress, thickness and Young's modulus of the lowest strata.
The suspension reinforcement mechanism is analysed using beam-column theory. The equations for the maximum bending stress, deflection and transferred bolt load for the bolted strata are derived. In the analysis, the bolt load is assumed to be a point load and a horizontal stress is uniformly applied to each stratum. The friction reinforcement mechanism is also investigated. The major function of roof bolting in this case is to create frictional resistance by tensioning the roof bolts so that the individual layers are combined into one single thick layer.
A computer program and nomographs are developed for the determination of proper bolting pattern and bolt tension. It is hoped that this development can lead to maximum safety with minimum cost for the design of roof bolting systems in underground coal mines.