Pseudoaneurysm (PS) and aneurismal dilation of vein (ADV) are recognized complications of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) in patients on hemodialysis. We present our experience about surgical management of these complications, which resulted in AVF preservation for continuing hemodialysis.
Material and methods
Twenty-two patients underwent surgical repair of an aneurismal dilation of vein or a pseudoaneurysm arising from a native AVF. In 14 patients the aneurismal dilation of vein arose from the venous limb of AVF and in eight patients the pseudoaneurysm arose from an arteriovenous anastomotic site in the antecubital and anterior part of arm. The mean follow-up period was 15 months. Clamp Aneurysm Repair (CAR) was performed to repair the aneurismal dilation of venous limb of AVF and Tourniquet Aneurysm Repair (TAR) was performed to repair PS that arose from AVF in the antecubital and anterior part of arm.
In eight of the 14 patients with aneurismal dilation of vein, who underwent CAR procedure, vascular access was preserved. In three patients with aneurismal dilation of vein in snuffbox and one in forearm, the AVF had failed due to prior venous thrombosis of AVF. In two of 14 patients, there was no need for preservation of AVF because of renal transplantation. The technical success rate and patency rate during follow up period in CAR method was 100%. In seven of eight patients with psudoaneurysm in the antecubital and anterior part of arm, who underwent TAR procedure, the AVF remained patent. The technical success rate in TAR method was 87.5%, and the patency rate was 87.5%. Overall, technical success rate was 95.45% and patency rate was 93.75%. During the 15 months of follow up period hemodialysis program through the repaired AVF sustained as desired.
The surgical methods used in our study could effectively repair the aneurismal dilation of vein and psudoaneurysm arising from a native AVF, and it lead to preservation of the AVF patency for continuing hemodialysis. These methods are technically feasible, safe and cost-effective procedures. It does not require dissection and additional incision for control of the vein and artery proximal and distal to the aneurismal dilation of vein and pseudoaneurysm; result in shorter time of procedure without complications.