This research explores the impacts of a broad range of supplemental carbon sources on growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Parameters measured include dark-germinated hypocotyl length, light-germinated root growth, rosette growth, chlorophyll concentration and anthocyanin content. Treatment sugars include sucrose, maltose, d-glucose, d-fructose, l-arabinose, l-fucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, l-rhamnose and d-xylose each supplied at 4, 20 or 100 mM. This comparison of the effect of different carbon sources on multiple parameters and under identical conditions showed that every carbon source had unique qualitative and quantitative effects on Arabidopsis growth and development. Root growth was particularly sensitive to supplemental carbon source. Growth on 100 mM sucrose, maltose, glucose or xylose stimulated root growth by ~100%. Growth on arabinose, fucose, galactose, mannose or rhamnose inhibited root growth by 50% or more. Several sugars that strongly inhibited root growth had either no effect (galactose and fucose) or a positive effect (arabinose) on hypocotyl elongation and rosette growth. Rhamnose was the only carbon source that inhibited hypocotyl elongation across all concentrations. Sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, arabinose or xylose stimulated rosette growth by ~50%. Chlorophyll content was strongly reduced by mannose while sucrose, glucose, galactose and rhamnose caused smaller reductions. Anthocyanin accumulation was strongly induced by both galactose and mannose. Only mannose impacted all parameters across all concentrations. Based on these data it can be concluded that the effect of each carbon source on Arabidopsis growth and development is specific in terms of both magnitude and the parameters impacted.