“Matsutake” mushrooms are formed by several species of Tricholoma sect. Caligata distributed across the northern hemisphere. A phylogenetic analysis of matsutake based on virtually neutral mutations in DNA sequences resolved robust relationships among Tricholoma anatolicum, Tricholoma bakamatsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare, Tricholoma matsutake, and Tricholoma sp. from Mexico (=Tricholoma sp. Mex). However, relationships among these matsutake and other species, such as Tricholoma caligatum and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, were ambiguous. We, therefore, analyzed genomic copy numbers of σmarY1, marY1, and marY2N retrotransposons by comparing them with the single-copy mobile DNA megB1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clarify matsutake phylogeny. We also examined types of megB1-associated domains, composed of a number of poly (A) and poly (T) reminiscent of RNA-derived DNA elements among these species. Both datasets resolved two distinct groups, one composed of T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum, and T. caligatum that could have diverged earlier and the other comprising T. magnivelare, Tricholoma sp. Mex, T. anatolicum, and T. matsutake that could have evolved later. In the first group, T. caligatum was the closest to the second group, followed by T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake. Within the second group, T. magnivelare was clearly differentiated from the other species. The data suggest that matsutake underwent substantial evolution between the first group, mostly composed of Fagaceae symbionts, and the second group, comprised only of Pinaceae symbionts, but diverged little within each groups. Mobile DNA markers could be useful in resolving difficult phylogenies due to, for example, closely spaced speciation events.